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.TH DYNAGEN 1 "Sep 07, 2006"
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.SH NAME
dynamips \- Cisco router 7200/3600 simulator
.SH SYNOPSIS
.B dynamips
.RI [ options ] 
.I ios_image
.br
.SH DESCRIPTION
emulates Cisco 7200 and 3600 Routers on a traditional PC. You can use
\fBdynamips\fP to create labs. It uses real Cisco IOS Images (which are not
part of this package). Of course, this emulator cannot replace a real router.
It is simply a complementary tool to real labs for administrators of Cisco
networks or people wanting to pass their CCNA/CCNP/CCIE exams.
.br
The emulator currently supports Cisco 7200 and Cisco 3600 series.
By default, a Cisco 7206VXR with NPE\-200 (256 Mb of DRAM) is emulated.
.br
To emulate a Cisco 3600, use the "\-P 3600" command line option.
.br
For the 3600, a 3640 with 128 Mb is emulated by default. You can change this
with the "\-t" option and by specifying "3620" or "3660".  Don't forget to set
the chassis type depending on your IOS image, a c3660 image will not run on
c3640 hardware and vice\-versa.
.PP
.\" TeX users may be more comfortable with the \fB<whatever>\fP and
.\" \fI<whatever>\fP escape sequences to invode bold face and italics, 
.\" respectively.
.SH OPTIONS
A summary of options is included below.
.TP
.B -H <tcp_port>
Enable hypervisor mode.
.br
The hypervisor mode of dynamips allows you to run simultaneously
many virtual router instances, and to simulate ATM, Ethernet
or Frame-Relay networks.
.br
You can connect directly to the TCP control port with telnet, or use
\fBdynagen\fP(1), \fBdynagui\fP(1) that will pass commands transparently. 
The second method is highly recommended.
.TP
.B -l <log_file>
Set logging file (default is dynamips_log.txt)
.TP
.B -j
Disable the JIT compiler, very slow
.TP
.B --exec-area <size>
Set the exec area size (default: 64 Mb)
.br
The exec area is a pool of host memory used to store pages translated by
the JIT (they contain the native code corresponding to MIPS code pages).

.TP
.B --idle-pc <pc>
Set the idle PC (default: disabled)
.br
The "idle PC" feature allows you to run a router instance without having
a 100% CPU load. This implies that you can run a larger number of instances
per real machine.
.br
To determine the "idle PC", start normally the emulator with your Cisco IOS
image, and a totally IOS empty configuration (although not mandatory, this
will give better results). When the image is fully booted, wait for the
"Press RETURN to get started!" message prompt, but do not press Enter key.
Wait about 5 seconds, then press "Ctrl-] + i". Some statistics will be
gathered during 10 seconds. At the end, the emulator will display a list of
possible values to pass to the "--idle-pc" option. You may have to try some
values before finding the good one. To check if the idle PC value is good,
just boot the Cisco IOS image, and check your CPU load when the console
prompt is available. If it is low, you have found a good value, keep it
preciously.
.br
Important remarks:
.br
* An "idle PC" value is *specific* to a Cisco IOS image. You cannot
boot a different IOS image without proceeding as described above.
.br
* Do not run the process while having the "autoconfiguration" prompt.

.TP
.B --timer-itv <val>
Timer IRQ interval check (default: 1000)
.TP
.B -i <instance>
Set instance ID
.TP
.B -r <ram_size>
Set the virtual RAM size (default: 256 Mb)
.TP
.B -o <rom_size>
Set the virtual ROM size (default: 4 Mb)
.TP
.B -n <nvram_size>
Set the NVRAM size (default: 128 Kb)
.TP
.B -c <conf_reg>
Set the configuration register (default: 0x2102)
.TP
.B -m <mac_addr>
Set the MAC address of the chassis (default: automatically generated)
.TP
.B -C <cfg_file>
Import an IOS configuration file into NVRAM
.TP
.B -X
Do not use a file to simulate RAM (faster)
.TP
.B -R <rom_file>
Load an alternate ROM (default: embedded)
.TP
.B -k <clock_div>
Set the clock divisor (default: 4)
.br
Specify the clock divider (integer) based on the host clock.
Alter the value to match the CISCO clock with the real time.
The command "show clock" at the IOS' CLI will help you set this value.

.TP
.B -T <port>
Console is on TCP <port>
.TP
.B -U <si_desc>
Console in on serial interface <si_desc> (default is on the terminal)
.TP
.B -A <port>
AUX is on TCP <port>
.TP
.B -B <si_desc>
AUX is on serial interface <si_desc> (default is no AUX port)
.TP
.B --disk0 <size>
Set PCMCIA ATA disk0: size (default: 64 Mb)
.TP
.B --disk1 <size>
Set PCMCIA ATA disk1: size (default: 0 Mb)
.TP
.B -a <cfg_file>
Virtual ATM switch configuration file.
.TP
.B -f <cfg_file>
Virtual Frame-Relay switch configuration file.
.TP
.B -E <cfg_file>
Virtual Ethernet switch configuration file.
.TP
.B -e
Show network device list of the host machine.

.SH OPTIONS specific to the Cisco 7200 series
.TP
.B -t <npe_type>
Select NPE type (default: "npe-200")
.TP
.B -M <midplane>
Select Midplane ("std" or "vxr")
.TP
.B -p <pa_desc>
Define a Port Adapter
.TP
.B -s <pa_nio>
Bind a Network IO interface to a Port Adapter

.SH OPTIONS specific to the Cisco 3600 series
.TP
.B -t <chassis_type>
Select Chassis type (default: "3640")
.TP
.B -p <nm_desc>
Define a Network Module
.TP
.B -s <nm_nio>
Bind a Network IO interface to a Network Module

.SH Cisco 7200 Port Adapter Description "<pa_desc>"
.TP
.B Format
slot:pa_driver
.TP
.B slot
the number of the physical slot (starts from 0)
.TP
.B pa_driver
the name of a Port Adapter driver in:
.RS
.IP C7200-IO-FE
(FastEthernet, slot 0 only)
.IP PA-FE-TX
(FastEthernet, slots 1 to 6)
.IP PA-4E
(Ethernet, 4 ports)
.IP PA-8E
(Ethernet, 8 ports)
.IP PA-4T+
(Serial, 4 ports)
.IP PA-8T
(Serial, 8 ports)
.IP PA-A1
(ATM)
.SH Cisco 3600 Network Module Description "<nm_desc>"
.TP
.B Format
slot:nm_driver
.TP
.B slot
the number of the physical slot (starts from 0)
.TP
.B nm_driver
the name of a Network Module driver in:
.RS
.IP NM-1E
(Ethernet, 1 port)
.IP NM-4E
(Ethernet, 4 ports)
.IP NM-1FE-TX
(FastEthernet, 1 port)
.IP NM-4T
(Serial, 4 ports)
.IP Leopard-2FE
(Cisco 3660 FastEthernet in slot 0, automatically used)
.SH NIO binding to Port Adapter "<pa_nio>" and Network Modules "<nm_nio>":
.TP
.B Format
slot:port:netio_type[:netio_parameters]
.TP
.B slot
the number of the physical slot (starts from 0)
.TP
.B port
the port in the specified slot (starts from 0)
.TP
.B netio_type
host interface for communication
.RS
.IP unix:<local_sock>:<remote_sock>
Use unix sockets for local communication.
<local_sock> is created and represents the local NIC.
<remote_sock> is the file used by the other interface.
(ex. "/tmp/local:/tmp/remote")
.IP vde:<control_sock>:<local_sock>
For use with UML (User-Mode-Linux) or VDE switches.
VDE stands for "Virtual Distributed Ethernet".
Please refer to : http://sourceforge.net/projects/vde/
.IP tap:<tap_name>
Use a virtual ethernet device for communication.
<tap_name> is the name of the tap device (ex. "tap0")
.IP gen_eth:<dev_name>
Use a real ethernet device for communication, using libpcap 0.9 or 
WinPcap. Works on Windows and Unix systems.
.br
<dev_name> is the name of the Ethernet device (ex. "eth0")
.br
The device list can be found using the "-e" option.
.IP linux_eth:<dev_name>
Use a real ethernet device for communication (Linux specific).
<dev_name> is the name of the Ethernet device (ex. "eth0")
.IP udp:<local_port>:<remote_host>:<remote_port>
Use an UDP socket for connection between remote instances. <local_port> 
is the port we listen to.
<remote_host> is the host listening the port you want to connect to.
<remote_port> is the port you want to connect to. (ex. "1000:somehost:2000" 
and "2000:otherhost:1000" on the other side)
.IP tcp_cli:<host>:<port>
Client side of a tcp connection.
<host> is the ip address of the server.
<port> is the port to connect to.
.IP tcp_ser:<port>
Server side of a tcp connection.
<port> is the port to listen to.
.IP null
Dummy netio (used for testing/debugging), no parameters needed.
.SH VTTY binding to real serial port device "<si_desc>"
.TP
.B Format
<device>{:baudrate{:databits{:parity{:stopbits{:hwflow}}}}}}
.RS
.IP device
character device name, e.g. /dev/ttyS0
.IP baudrate
baudrate
.IP databits
number of databits
.IP parity
data parity: N=none, O=odd, E=even
.IP stopbits
number of stop bits
.IP hwflow
hardware flow control (0=disable, 1=enable)
.br
Note that the device field is mandatory, however other fields are optional.
(dynamips will default to 9600, 8, N, 1, no hardware flow control)
.br
Note that access to the escape commands (described below) through a serial
port are deliberately prevented, as the escape commands interfere with
serial encapsulation protocols.

.SH Escape commands
You can press ^] (Ctrl + ]) at any time, followed by one of these characters:
.TP
.B o 
Show the VM object list
.TP
.B d 
Show the device list
.TP
.B r 
Dump MIPS CPU registers
.TP
.B t 
Dump MIPS TLB entries
.TP
.B m 
Dump the latest memory accesses
.TP
.B s 
Suspend CPU emulation
.TP
.B u 
Resume CPU emulation
.TP
.B q 
Quit the emulator
.TP
.B b 
Dump the instruction block tree
.TP
.B h 
JIT hash table statistics
.TP
.B l 
MTS64 cache statistics
.TP
.B c 
Write IOS configuration to disk (ios_cfg.txt)
.TP
.B j 
Non-JIT mode statistics
.TP
.B x 
Experimentations (can crash the box!)
.TP
.B ^]
Send ^]
.br
If you press an unrecognized key, help will be shown. Note: on Windows, it may be the "Ctrl + $" sequence.
.SH Virtual Bridge
The virtual bridge is used to emulate a shared network between emulator
instances.
Any emulator instance can act as a virtual bridge.
.br
The configuration file (specified by the "-b" option) contains a list of
NetIO descriptors, with the following syntax:
.TP
.B interface_name:netio_type[:netio_parameters]
.TP
Example:
.nf
# Connection to instance "I0"
I0:udp:10000:127.0.0.1:10001
# Connection to instance "I1"
I1:udp:10002:127.0.0.1:10003
# Connection to instance "I2"
I2:udp:10004:127.0.0.1:10005
.fi
.PP
The "I0" instance would be launched with the following parameters:
.TP
dynamips ios.bin -p 1:PA-FE-TX -s 1:0:udp:10001:127.0.0.1:10000

.SH Virtual Ethernet switch
The virtual ethernet switch is used to emulate an Ethernet network between
emulator instances. This switch supports access and trunk ports (802.1Q).
ISL will be available in a future release.
.br
Any emulator instance can act as a virtual ethernet switch.
.br
The configuration file (specified by the "-E" option) contains a list of
NetIO descriptors (representing interfaces) and a list of interface properties
(access/trunk port, VLAN info...)
.br
The interface definition is similar to Port Adapters:
.TP
.B IF:interface_name:netio_type[:netio_parameters]
.TP
.B Access Port
ACCESS:interface_name:vlan_id
.TP
.B 802.1Q Trunk Port
DOT1Q:interface_name:native_vlan
.PP
The native VLAN is not tagged. On Cisco devices, by default the native VLAN
is VLAN 1.
.TP
Example of configuration file:
.nf
IF:E0:udp:10000:127.0.0.1:10001
IF:E1:udp:10002:127.0.0.1:10003
IF:E2:gen_eth:eth0
DOT1Q:E0:1
ACCESS:E1:4
DOT1Q:E2:1
.fi

.SH Virtual ATM switch
The virtual ATM switch fabric is used to emulate an ATM backbone between
emulator instances. The use of this virtual switch is not mandatory, you
can directly connect emulator instances for point-to-point ATM connections.
Please note that only basic VP/VC switching is supported, there is no
support for ILMI/QSAAL/\|.\|.\|. or other specific ATM protocols.
.br
Any emulator instance can act as a virtual ATM switch.
.TP
Example of configuration file (specified by the "-a" option):
.nf
# Virtual Interface List
IF:A0:udp:10001:127.0.0.1:10000
IF:A1:udp:10002:127.0.0.1:10003
IF:A2:udp:10004:127.0.0.1:10005
# VP connection between I0 and I1
VP:A0:10:A1:20
VP:A1:20:A0:10
# VP connection between I0 and I2
VP:A0:11:A2:30
VP:A2:30:A0:11
# VC connection between I1 and I2
VC:A1:5:2:A2:7:3
VC:A2:7:3:A1:5:2
.fi
.PP
In this example, we have 3 virtual interfaces, A0, A1 and A2. The syntax
for interface definition is similar to Port Adapters:
.TP
.B IF:interface_name:netio_type[:netio_parameters]
You can do VP switching or VC switching:
.TP
.B VP switching
VP:input_if:input_vpi:output_if:output_vpi
.TP
.B VC switching
VC:input_if:input_vpi:input_vci:output_if:output_vpi:output_vci

.SH Testing the Virtual ATM switch with one dynamips instance
.TP
Virtual ATM switch configuration file ("atm.cfg"):
.nf
IF:A0:udp:10003:127.0.0.1:10001
IF:A1:udp:10004:127.0.0.1:10002
# a0/vpi=1/vci=100 connects to a1/vpi=2/vci=200
VC:A0:1:100:A1:2:200
VC:A1:2:200:A0:1:100
.fi
.TP 
Invoking dynamips:
.B \|./dynamips \-p 1:PA\-A1 \-s 1:0:udp:10001:127.0.0.1:10003 \-p 2:PA\-A1 \-s 2:0:udp:10002:127.0.0.1:10004 \-a atm.cfg IOS.BIN
.br
(note input ports of IOS interfaces are output ports of ATM switch
interfaces, and vice versa).
.br
.TP
IOS Configuration:
.nf
ip cef
ip vrf test
 rd 1:1
 route-target both 1:1
int a1/0
 no shut
int a1/0.2 p
 ip addr 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
 pvc 1/100
interface a2/0
 no shut
interface a2/0.2 p
 ip vrf forwarding test
 ip addr 1.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
 pvc 2/200
!
.fi

.SH Virtual Frame-Relay switch
The virtual Frame-Relay switch fabric is used to emulate a Frame-Relay
backbone between emulator instances. The use of this virtual switch is not
mandatory, you can directly connect emulator instances with appropriate IOS
configuration.
.br
Any emulator instance can act as a virtual Frame-Relay switch.
There is only a basic implementation of the LMI protocol (ANSI Annex D), which
is probably not conforming but works with Cisco IOS. Fortunately, Cisco IOS
is able to detect automatically the LMI protocol.
.TP
Example of configuration file (specified by the "-f" option):
.nf
# Virtual Interface List
IF:S0:udp:10001:127.0.0.1:10000
IF:S1:udp:10002:127.0.0.1:10003
# DLCI switching between S0 and S1
VC:S0:200:S1:100
VC:S1:100:S0:200
.fi
.PP
In this example, we have 2 virtual interfaces, S0 and S1. The syntax
for interface definition is similar to Port Adapters:
.TP
.B IF:interface_name:netio_type[:netio_parameters]
.TP
.B DLCI switching syntax:
.RS
.IP VC:input_if:input_dlci:output_if:output_dlci
.RE
.br
In the example above, the switch is configured to switch packets
received on interface S0 with DLCI 200 to interface S1 with DLCI 100,
and vice-versa.

.SH BUGS
.TP
The "npe-g1" Port Adapter is not working.
.TP
PCMCIA card emulation is not supported yet with Cisco 3600.
.SH REPORTING BUGS
.br
Please send bug reports to http://www.ipflow.utc.fr/bts/
.SH SEE ALSO
.br
\fBnvram_export\fP(1), \fBhypervisor_mode\fP(7), \fBdynagen\fP(1), 
\fBdynagui\fP(1)
.br
.UR
http://www.ipflow.utc.fr/index.php/
.UE
.br
.UR
http://www.ipflow.utc.fr/blog/
.UE
.br
.UR
http://hacki.at/7200emu/index.php
.UE
.SH AUTHOR
\fBdynamips\fP was written by Fabien Devaux, Christophe Fillot (cf@utc.fr)
and MtvE. This manual page was written by Erik Wenzel <erik@debian.org>
for the Debian GNU/Linux system (but may be used by others).