Annotation of linux/COPYING, revision 1.1.1.1

1.1       root        1:                    GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
                      2:                       Version 2, June 1991
                      3: 
                      4:  Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
                      5:                           675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
                      6:  Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
                      7:  of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
                      8: 
                      9:                            Preamble
                     10: 
                     11:   The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
                     12: freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
                     13: License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
                     14: software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
                     15: General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
                     16: Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
                     17: using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
                     18: the GNU Library General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
                     19: your programs, too.
                     20: 
                     21:   When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
                     22: price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
                     23: have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
                     24: this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
                     25: if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
                     26: in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
                     27: 
                     28:   To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
                     29: anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
                     30: These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
                     31: distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
                     32: 
                     33:   For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
                     34: gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
                     35: you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
                     36: source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
                     37: rights.
                     38: 
                     39:   We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
                     40: (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
                     41: distribute and/or modify the software.
                     42: 
                     43:   Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
                     44: that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
                     45: software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
                     46: want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
                     47: that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
                     48: authors' reputations.
                     49: 
                     50:   Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
                     51: patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
                     52: program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
                     53: program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
                     54: patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
                     55: 
                     56:   The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
                     57: modification follow.
                     58: 
                     59:                    GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
                     60:    TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
                     61: 
                     62:   0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
                     63: a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
                     64: under the terms of this General Public License.  The "Program", below,
                     65: refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
                     66: means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
                     67: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
                     68: either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
                     69: language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
                     70: the term "modification".)  Each licensee is addressed as "you".
                     71: 
                     72: Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
                     73: covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
                     74: running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
                     75: is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
                     76: Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
                     77: Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
                     78: 
                     79:   1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
                     80: source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
                     81: conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
                     82: copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
                     83: notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
                     84: and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
                     85: along with the Program.
                     86: 
                     87: You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
                     88: you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
                     89: 
                     90:   2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
                     91: of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
                     92: distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
                     93: above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
                     94: 
                     95:     a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
                     96:     stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
                     97: 
                     98:     b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
                     99:     whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
                    100:     part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
                    101:     parties under the terms of this License.
                    102: 
                    103:     c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
                    104:     when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
                    105:     interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
                    106:     announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
                    107:     notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
                    108:     a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
                    109:     these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
                    110:     License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
                    111:     does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
                    112:     the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
                    113: 
                    114: These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
                    115: identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
                    116: and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
                    117: themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
                    118: sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
                    119: distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
                    120: on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
                    121: this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
                    122: entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
                    123: 
                    124: Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
                    125: your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
                    126: exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
                    127: collective works based on the Program.
                    128: 
                    129: In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
                    130: with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
                    131: a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
                    132: the scope of this License.
                    133: 
                    134:   3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
                    135: under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
                    136: Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
                    137: 
                    138:     a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
                    139:     source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
                    140:     1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
                    141: 
                    142:     b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
                    143:     years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
                    144:     cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
                    145:     machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
                    146:     distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
                    147:     customarily used for software interchange; or,
                    148: 
                    149:     c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
                    150:     to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
                    151:     allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
                    152:     received the program in object code or executable form with such
                    153:     an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
                    154: 
                    155: The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
                    156: making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
                    157: code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
                    158: associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
                    159: control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
                    160: special exception, the source code distributed need not include
                    161: anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
                    162: form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
                    163: operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
                    164: itself accompanies the executable.
                    165: 
                    166: If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
                    167: access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
                    168: access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
                    169: distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
                    170: compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
                    171: 
                    172:   4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
                    173: except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
                    174: otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
                    175: void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
                    176: However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
                    177: this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
                    178: parties remain in full compliance.
                    179: 
                    180:   5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
                    181: signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
                    182: distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
                    183: prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
                    184: modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
                    185: Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
                    186: all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
                    187: the Program or works based on it.
                    188: 
                    189:   6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
                    190: Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
                    191: original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
                    192: these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
                    193: restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
                    194: You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
                    195: this License.
                    196: 
                    197:   7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
                    198: infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
                    199: conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
                    200: otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
                    201: excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
                    202: distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
                    203: License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
                    204: may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
                    205: license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
                    206: all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
                    207: the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
                    208: refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
                    209: 
                    210: If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
                    211: any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
                    212: apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
                    213: circumstances.
                    214: 
                    215: It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
                    216: patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
                    217: such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
                    218: integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
                    219: implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
                    220: generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
                    221: through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
                    222: system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
                    223: to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
                    224: impose that choice.
                    225: 
                    226: This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
                    227: be a consequence of the rest of this License.
                    228: 
                    229:   8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
                    230: certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
                    231: original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
                    232: may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
                    233: those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
                    234: countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
                    235: the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
                    236: 
                    237:   9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
                    238: of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
                    239: be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
                    240: address new problems or concerns.
                    241: 
                    242: Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
                    243: specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
                    244: later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
                    245: either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
                    246: Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
                    247: this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
                    248: Foundation.
                    249: 
                    250:   10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
                    251: programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
                    252: to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
                    253: Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
                    254: make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
                    255: of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
                    256: of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
                    257: 
                    258:                            NO WARRANTY
                    259: 
                    260:   11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
                    261: FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN
                    262: OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
                    263: PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
                    264: OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
                    265: MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS
                    266: TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE
                    267: PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
                    268: REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
                    269: 
                    270:   12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
                    271: WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
                    272: REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
                    273: INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
                    274: OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
                    275: TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
                    276: YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
                    277: PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
                    278: POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
                    279: 
                    280:                     END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
                    281: 
                    282:        Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
                    283: 
                    284:   If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
                    285: possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
                    286: free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
                    287: 
                    288:   To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
                    289: to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
                    290: convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
                    291: the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
                    292: 
                    293:     <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
                    294:     Copyright (C) 19yy  <name of author>
                    295: 
                    296:     This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
                    297:     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
                    298:     the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
                    299:     (at your option) any later version.
                    300: 
                    301:     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
                    302:     but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
                    303:     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
                    304:     GNU General Public License for more details.
                    305: 
                    306:     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
                    307:     along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
                    308:     Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
                    309: 
                    310: Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
                    311: 
                    312: If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
                    313: when it starts in an interactive mode:
                    314: 
                    315:     Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author
                    316:     Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
                    317:     This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
                    318:     under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
                    319: 
                    320: The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
                    321: parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the commands you use may
                    322: be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
                    323: mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
                    324: 
                    325: You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
                    326: school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
                    327: necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:
                    328: 
                    329:   Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
                    330:   `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
                    331: 
                    332:   <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
                    333:   Ty Coon, President of Vice
                    334: 
                    335: This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
                    336: proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you may
                    337: consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
                    338: library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
                    339: Public License instead of this License.

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