Annotation of linux/COPYING, revision 126.96.36.199
1.1 root 1: GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
2: Version 2, June 1991
4: Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
5: 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
6: Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
7: of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
11: The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
12: freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
13: License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
14: software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
15: General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
16: Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
17: using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
18: the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
19: your programs, too.
21: When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
22: price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
23: have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
24: this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
25: if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
26: in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
28: To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
29: anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
30: These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
31: distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
33: For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
34: gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
35: you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
36: source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
39: We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
40: (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
41: distribute and/or modify the software.
43: Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
44: that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
45: software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
46: want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
47: that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
48: authors' reputations.
50: Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
51: patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
52: program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
53: program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
54: patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
56: The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
57: modification follow.
59: GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
60: TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
62: 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
63: a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
64: under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
65: refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
66: means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
67: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
68: either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
69: language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
70: the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
72: Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
73: covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
74: running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
75: is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
76: Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
77: Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
79: 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
80: source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
81: conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
82: copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
83: notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
84: and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
85: along with the Program.
87: You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
88: you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
90: 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
91: of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
92: distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
93: above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
95: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
96: stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
98: b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
99: whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
100: part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
101: parties under the terms of this License.
103: c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
104: when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
105: interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
106: announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
107: notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
108: a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
109: these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
110: License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
111: does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
112: the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
114: These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
115: identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
116: and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
117: themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
118: sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
119: distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
120: on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
121: this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
122: entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
124: Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
125: your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
126: exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
127: collective works based on the Program.
129: In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
130: with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
131: a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
132: the scope of this License.
134: 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
135: under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
136: Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
138: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
139: source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
140: 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
142: b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
143: years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
144: cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
145: machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
146: distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
147: customarily used for software interchange; or,
149: c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
150: to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
151: allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
152: received the program in object code or executable form with such
153: an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
155: The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
156: making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
157: code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
158: associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
159: control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
160: special exception, the source code distributed need not include
161: anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
162: form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
163: operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
164: itself accompanies the executable.
166: If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
167: access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
168: access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
169: distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
170: compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
172: 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
173: except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
174: otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
175: void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
176: However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
177: this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
178: parties remain in full compliance.
180: 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
181: signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
182: distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
183: prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
184: modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
185: Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
186: all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
187: the Program or works based on it.
189: 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
190: Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
191: original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
192: these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
193: restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
194: You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
195: this License.
197: 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
198: infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
199: conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
200: otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
201: excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
202: distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
203: License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
204: may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
205: license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
206: all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
207: the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
208: refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
210: If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
211: any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
212: apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
215: It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
216: patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
217: such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
218: integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
219: implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
220: generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
221: through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
222: system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
223: to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
224: impose that choice.
226: This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
227: be a consequence of the rest of this License.
229: 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
230: certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
231: original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
232: may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
233: those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
234: countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
235: the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
237: 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
238: of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
239: be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
240: address new problems or concerns.
242: Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
243: specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
244: later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
245: either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
246: Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
247: this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
250: 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
251: programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
252: to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
253: Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
254: make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
255: of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
256: of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
258: NO WARRANTY
260: 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
261: FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
262: OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
263: PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
264: OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
265: MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
266: TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
267: PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
268: REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
270: 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
271: WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
272: REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
273: INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
274: OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
275: TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
276: YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
277: PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
278: POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
280: END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
282: Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
284: If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
285: possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
286: free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
288: To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
289: to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
290: convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
291: the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
293: <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
294: Copyright (C) 19yy <name of author>
296: This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
297: it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
298: the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
299: (at your option) any later version.
301: This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
302: but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
303: MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
304: GNU General Public License for more details.
306: You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
307: along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
308: Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
310: Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
312: If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
313: when it starts in an interactive mode:
315: Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author
316: Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
317: This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
318: under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
320: The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
321: parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
322: be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
323: mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
325: You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
326: school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
327: necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
329: Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
330: `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
332: <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
333: Ty Coon, President of Vice
335: This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
336: proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
337: consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
338: library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
339: Public License instead of this License.