Annotation of linux/COPYING, revision 1.1

1.1     ! root        1:                    GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
        !             2:                       Version 2, June 1991
        !             3: 
        !             4:  Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
        !             5:                           675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
        !             6:  Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
        !             7:  of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
        !             8: 
        !             9:                            Preamble
        !            10: 
        !            11:   The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
        !            12: freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
        !            13: License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
        !            14: software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
        !            15: General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
        !            16: Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
        !            17: using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
        !            18: the GNU Library General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
        !            19: your programs, too.
        !            20: 
        !            21:   When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
        !            22: price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
        !            23: have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
        !            24: this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
        !            25: if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
        !            26: in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
        !            27: 
        !            28:   To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
        !            29: anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
        !            30: These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
        !            31: distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
        !            32: 
        !            33:   For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
        !            34: gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
        !            35: you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
        !            36: source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
        !            37: rights.
        !            38: 
        !            39:   We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
        !            40: (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
        !            41: distribute and/or modify the software.
        !            42: 
        !            43:   Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
        !            44: that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
        !            45: software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
        !            46: want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
        !            47: that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
        !            48: authors' reputations.
        !            49: 
        !            50:   Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
        !            51: patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
        !            52: program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
        !            53: program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
        !            54: patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
        !            55: 
        !            56:   The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
        !            57: modification follow.
        !            58: 
        !            59:                    GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
        !            60:    TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
        !            61: 
        !            62:   0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
        !            63: a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
        !            64: under the terms of this General Public License.  The "Program", below,
        !            65: refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
        !            66: means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
        !            67: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
        !            68: either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
        !            69: language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
        !            70: the term "modification".)  Each licensee is addressed as "you".
        !            71: 
        !            72: Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
        !            73: covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
        !            74: running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
        !            75: is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
        !            76: Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
        !            77: Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
        !            78: 
        !            79:   1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
        !            80: source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
        !            81: conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
        !            82: copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
        !            83: notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
        !            84: and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
        !            85: along with the Program.
        !            86: 
        !            87: You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
        !            88: you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
        !            89: 
        !            90:   2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
        !            91: of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
        !            92: distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
        !            93: above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
        !            94: 
        !            95:     a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
        !            96:     stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
        !            97: 
        !            98:     b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
        !            99:     whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
        !           100:     part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
        !           101:     parties under the terms of this License.
        !           102: 
        !           103:     c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
        !           104:     when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
        !           105:     interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
        !           106:     announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
        !           107:     notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
        !           108:     a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
        !           109:     these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
        !           110:     License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
        !           111:     does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
        !           112:     the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
        !           113: 
        !           114: These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
        !           115: identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
        !           116: and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
        !           117: themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
        !           118: sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
        !           119: distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
        !           120: on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
        !           121: this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
        !           122: entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
        !           123: 
        !           124: Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
        !           125: your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
        !           126: exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
        !           127: collective works based on the Program.
        !           128: 
        !           129: In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
        !           130: with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
        !           131: a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
        !           132: the scope of this License.
        !           133: 
        !           134:   3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
        !           135: under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
        !           136: Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
        !           137: 
        !           138:     a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
        !           139:     source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
        !           140:     1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
        !           141: 
        !           142:     b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
        !           143:     years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
        !           144:     cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
        !           145:     machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
        !           146:     distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
        !           147:     customarily used for software interchange; or,
        !           148: 
        !           149:     c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
        !           150:     to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
        !           151:     allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
        !           152:     received the program in object code or executable form with such
        !           153:     an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
        !           154: 
        !           155: The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
        !           156: making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
        !           157: code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
        !           158: associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
        !           159: control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
        !           160: special exception, the source code distributed need not include
        !           161: anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
        !           162: form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
        !           163: operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
        !           164: itself accompanies the executable.
        !           165: 
        !           166: If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
        !           167: access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
        !           168: access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
        !           169: distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
        !           170: compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
        !           171: 
        !           172:   4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
        !           173: except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
        !           174: otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
        !           175: void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
        !           176: However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
        !           177: this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
        !           178: parties remain in full compliance.
        !           179: 
        !           180:   5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
        !           181: signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
        !           182: distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
        !           183: prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
        !           184: modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
        !           185: Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
        !           186: all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
        !           187: the Program or works based on it.
        !           188: 
        !           189:   6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
        !           190: Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
        !           191: original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
        !           192: these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
        !           193: restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
        !           194: You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
        !           195: this License.
        !           196: 
        !           197:   7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
        !           198: infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
        !           199: conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
        !           200: otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
        !           201: excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
        !           202: distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
        !           203: License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
        !           204: may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
        !           205: license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
        !           206: all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
        !           207: the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
        !           208: refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
        !           209: 
        !           210: If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
        !           211: any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
        !           212: apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
        !           213: circumstances.
        !           214: 
        !           215: It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
        !           216: patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
        !           217: such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
        !           218: integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
        !           219: implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
        !           220: generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
        !           221: through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
        !           222: system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
        !           223: to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
        !           224: impose that choice.
        !           225: 
        !           226: This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
        !           227: be a consequence of the rest of this License.
        !           228: 
        !           229:   8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
        !           230: certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
        !           231: original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
        !           232: may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
        !           233: those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
        !           234: countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
        !           235: the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
        !           236: 
        !           237:   9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
        !           238: of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
        !           239: be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
        !           240: address new problems or concerns.
        !           241: 
        !           242: Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
        !           243: specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
        !           244: later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
        !           245: either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
        !           246: Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
        !           247: this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
        !           248: Foundation.
        !           249: 
        !           250:   10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
        !           251: programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
        !           252: to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
        !           253: Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
        !           254: make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
        !           255: of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
        !           256: of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
        !           257: 
        !           258:                            NO WARRANTY
        !           259: 
        !           260:   11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
        !           261: FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN
        !           262: OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
        !           263: PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
        !           264: OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
        !           265: MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS
        !           266: TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE
        !           267: PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
        !           268: REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
        !           269: 
        !           270:   12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
        !           271: WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
        !           272: REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
        !           273: INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
        !           274: OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
        !           275: TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
        !           276: YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
        !           277: PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
        !           278: POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
        !           279: 
        !           280:                     END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
        !           281: 
        !           282:        Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
        !           283: 
        !           284:   If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
        !           285: possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
        !           286: free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
        !           287: 
        !           288:   To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
        !           289: to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
        !           290: convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
        !           291: the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
        !           292: 
        !           293:     <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
        !           294:     Copyright (C) 19yy  <name of author>
        !           295: 
        !           296:     This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
        !           297:     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
        !           298:     the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
        !           299:     (at your option) any later version.
        !           300: 
        !           301:     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
        !           302:     but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
        !           303:     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
        !           304:     GNU General Public License for more details.
        !           305: 
        !           306:     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
        !           307:     along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
        !           308:     Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
        !           309: 
        !           310: Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
        !           311: 
        !           312: If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
        !           313: when it starts in an interactive mode:
        !           314: 
        !           315:     Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author
        !           316:     Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
        !           317:     This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
        !           318:     under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
        !           319: 
        !           320: The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
        !           321: parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the commands you use may
        !           322: be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
        !           323: mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
        !           324: 
        !           325: You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
        !           326: school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
        !           327: necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:
        !           328: 
        !           329:   Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
        !           330:   `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
        !           331: 
        !           332:   <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
        !           333:   Ty Coon, President of Vice
        !           334: 
        !           335: This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
        !           336: proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you may
        !           337: consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
        !           338: library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
        !           339: Public License instead of this License.

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