Annotation of qemu/CODING_STYLE, revision

1.1       root        1: Qemu Coding Style
                      2: =================
                      4: 1. Whitespace
                      6: Of course, the most important aspect in any coding style is whitespace.
                      7: Crusty old coders who have trouble spotting the glasses on their noses
                      8: can tell the difference between a tab and eight spaces from a distance
                      9: of approximately fifteen parsecs.  Many a flamewar have been fought and
                     10: lost on this issue.
                     12: QEMU indents are four spaces.  Tabs are never used, except in Makefiles
                     13: where they have been irreversibly coded into the syntax.
                     14: Spaces of course are superior to tabs because:
                     16:  - You have just one way to specify whitespace, not two.  Ambiguity breeds
                     17:    mistakes.
                     18:  - The confusion surrounding 'use tabs to indent, spaces to justify' is gone.
                     19:  - Tab indents push your code to the right, making your screen seriously
                     20:    unbalanced.
                     21:  - Tabs will be rendered incorrectly on editors who are misconfigured not
                     22:    to use tab stops of eight positions.
                     23:  - Tabs are rendered badly in patches, causing off-by-one errors in almost
                     24:    every line.
                     25:  - It is the QEMU coding style.
                     27: Do not leave whitespace dangling off the ends of lines.
                     29: 2. Line width
                     31: Lines are 80 characters; not longer.
                     33: Rationale:
                     34:  - Some people like to tile their 24" screens with a 6x4 matrix of 80x24
                     35:    xterms and use vi in all of them.  The best way to punish them is to
                     36:    let them keep doing it.
                     37:  - Code and especially patches is much more readable if limited to a sane
                     38:    line length.  Eighty is traditional.
                     39:  - It is the QEMU coding style.
                     41: 3. Naming
                     43: Variables are lower_case_with_underscores; easy to type and read.  Structured
                     44: type names are in CamelCase; harder to type but standing out.  Scalar type
                     45: names are lower_case_with_underscores_ending_with_a_t, like the POSIX
                     46: uint64_t and family.  Note that this last convention contradicts POSIX
                     47: and is therefore likely to be changed.
                     49: Typedefs are used to eliminate the redundant 'struct' keyword.  It is the
                     50: QEMU coding style.
                     52: 4. Block structure
                     54: Every indented statement is braced; even if the block contains just one
                     55: statement.  The opening brace is on the line that contains the control
                     56: flow statement that introduces the new block; the closing brace is on the
                     57: same line as the else keyword, or on a line by itself if there is no else
                     58: keyword.  Example:
                     60:     if (a == 5) {
                     61:         printf("a was 5.\n");
                     62:     } else if (a == 6) {
                     63:         printf("a was 6.\n");
                     64:     } else {
                     65:         printf("a was something else entirely.\n");
                     66:     }
                     68: An exception is the opening brace for a function; for reasons of tradition
                     69: and clarity it comes on a line by itself:
                     71:     void a_function(void)
                     72:     {
                     73:         do_something();
                     74:     }
                     76: Rationale: a consistent (except for functions...) bracing style reduces
                     77: ambiguity and avoids needless churn when lines are added or removed.
                     78: Furthermore, it is the QEMU coding style.