Annotation of qemu/qemu-doc.texi, revision 1.1.1.6

1.1       root        1: \input texinfo @c -*- texinfo -*-
1.1.1.3   root        2: @c %**start of header
                      3: @setfilename qemu-doc.info
1.1.1.5   root        4: @settitle QEMU Emulator User Documentation
1.1.1.3   root        5: @exampleindent 0
                      6: @paragraphindent 0
                      7: @c %**end of header
1.1       root        8: 
                      9: @iftex
                     10: @titlepage
                     11: @sp 7
1.1.1.5   root       12: @center @titlefont{QEMU Emulator}
1.1.1.3   root       13: @sp 1
                     14: @center @titlefont{User Documentation}
1.1       root       15: @sp 3
                     16: @end titlepage
                     17: @end iftex
                     18: 
1.1.1.3   root       19: @ifnottex
                     20: @node Top
                     21: @top
                     22: 
                     23: @menu
                     24: * Introduction::
                     25: * Installation::
                     26: * QEMU PC System emulator::
                     27: * QEMU System emulator for non PC targets::
1.1.1.5   root       28: * QEMU User space emulator::
1.1.1.3   root       29: * compilation:: Compilation from the sources
                     30: * Index::
                     31: @end menu
                     32: @end ifnottex
                     33: 
                     34: @contents
                     35: 
                     36: @node Introduction
1.1       root       37: @chapter Introduction
                     38: 
1.1.1.3   root       39: @menu
                     40: * intro_features:: Features
                     41: @end menu
                     42: 
                     43: @node intro_features
1.1       root       44: @section Features
                     45: 
                     46: QEMU is a FAST! processor emulator using dynamic translation to
                     47: achieve good emulation speed.
                     48: 
                     49: QEMU has two operating modes:
                     50: 
                     51: @itemize @minus
                     52: 
1.1.1.6 ! root       53: @item
1.1       root       54: Full system emulation. In this mode, QEMU emulates a full system (for
1.1.1.2   root       55: example a PC), including one or several processors and various
                     56: peripherals. It can be used to launch different Operating Systems
                     57: without rebooting the PC or to debug system code.
1.1       root       58: 
1.1.1.6 ! root       59: @item
1.1.1.5   root       60: User mode emulation. In this mode, QEMU can launch
                     61: processes compiled for one CPU on another CPU. It can be used to
1.1       root       62: launch the Wine Windows API emulator (@url{http://www.winehq.org}) or
                     63: to ease cross-compilation and cross-debugging.
                     64: 
                     65: @end itemize
                     66: 
                     67: QEMU can run without an host kernel driver and yet gives acceptable
1.1.1.6 ! root       68: performance.
1.1       root       69: 
                     70: For system emulation, the following hardware targets are supported:
                     71: @itemize
                     72: @item PC (x86 or x86_64 processor)
1.1.1.2   root       73: @item ISA PC (old style PC without PCI bus)
1.1       root       74: @item PREP (PowerPC processor)
                     75: @item G3 BW PowerMac (PowerPC processor)
                     76: @item Mac99 PowerMac (PowerPC processor, in progress)
1.1.1.6 ! root       77: @item Sun4m/Sun4c/Sun4d (32-bit Sparc processor)
1.1       root       78: @item Sun4u (64-bit Sparc processor, in progress)
1.1.1.6 ! root       79: @item Malta board (32-bit and 64-bit MIPS processors)
        !            80: @item ARM Integrator/CP (ARM)
        !            81: @item ARM Versatile baseboard (ARM)
        !            82: @item ARM RealView Emulation baseboard (ARM)
        !            83: @item Spitz, Akita, Borzoi and Terrier PDAs (PXA270 processor)
        !            84: @item Luminary Micro LM3S811EVB (ARM Cortex-M3)
        !            85: @item Luminary Micro LM3S6965EVB (ARM Cortex-M3)
        !            86: @item Freescale MCF5208EVB (ColdFire V2).
        !            87: @item Arnewsh MCF5206 evaluation board (ColdFire V2).
        !            88: @item Palm Tungsten|E PDA (OMAP310 processor)
1.1       root       89: @end itemize
                     90: 
1.1.1.6 ! root       91: For user emulation, x86, PowerPC, ARM, 32-bit MIPS, Sparc32/64 and ColdFire(m68k) CPUs are supported.
1.1       root       92: 
1.1.1.3   root       93: @node Installation
1.1       root       94: @chapter Installation
                     95: 
                     96: If you want to compile QEMU yourself, see @ref{compilation}.
                     97: 
1.1.1.3   root       98: @menu
                     99: * install_linux::   Linux
                    100: * install_windows:: Windows
                    101: * install_mac::     Macintosh
                    102: @end menu
                    103: 
                    104: @node install_linux
1.1       root      105: @section Linux
                    106: 
                    107: If a precompiled package is available for your distribution - you just
                    108: have to install it. Otherwise, see @ref{compilation}.
                    109: 
1.1.1.3   root      110: @node install_windows
1.1       root      111: @section Windows
                    112: 
                    113: Download the experimental binary installer at
1.1.1.3   root      114: @url{http://www.free.oszoo.org/@/download.html}.
1.1       root      115: 
1.1.1.3   root      116: @node install_mac
1.1       root      117: @section Mac OS X
                    118: 
                    119: Download the experimental binary installer at
1.1.1.3   root      120: @url{http://www.free.oszoo.org/@/download.html}.
1.1       root      121: 
1.1.1.3   root      122: @node QEMU PC System emulator
1.1.1.2   root      123: @chapter QEMU PC System emulator
1.1       root      124: 
1.1.1.3   root      125: @menu
                    126: * pcsys_introduction:: Introduction
                    127: * pcsys_quickstart::   Quick Start
                    128: * sec_invocation::     Invocation
                    129: * pcsys_keys::         Keys
                    130: * pcsys_monitor::      QEMU Monitor
                    131: * disk_images::        Disk Images
                    132: * pcsys_network::      Network emulation
                    133: * direct_linux_boot::  Direct Linux Boot
                    134: * pcsys_usb::          USB emulation
1.1.1.6 ! root      135: * vnc_security::       VNC security
1.1.1.3   root      136: * gdb_usage::          GDB usage
                    137: * pcsys_os_specific::  Target OS specific information
                    138: @end menu
                    139: 
                    140: @node pcsys_introduction
1.1       root      141: @section Introduction
                    142: 
                    143: @c man begin DESCRIPTION
                    144: 
1.1.1.2   root      145: The QEMU PC System emulator simulates the
                    146: following peripherals:
1.1       root      147: 
                    148: @itemize @minus
1.1.1.6 ! root      149: @item
1.1       root      150: i440FX host PCI bridge and PIIX3 PCI to ISA bridge
                    151: @item
                    152: Cirrus CLGD 5446 PCI VGA card or dummy VGA card with Bochs VESA
                    153: extensions (hardware level, including all non standard modes).
                    154: @item
                    155: PS/2 mouse and keyboard
1.1.1.6 ! root      156: @item
1.1       root      157: 2 PCI IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
                    158: @item
                    159: Floppy disk
1.1.1.6 ! root      160: @item
        !           161: PCI/ISA PCI network adapters
1.1       root      162: @item
                    163: Serial ports
                    164: @item
1.1.1.2   root      165: Creative SoundBlaster 16 sound card
                    166: @item
                    167: ENSONIQ AudioPCI ES1370 sound card
                    168: @item
                    169: Adlib(OPL2) - Yamaha YM3812 compatible chip
                    170: @item
                    171: PCI UHCI USB controller and a virtual USB hub.
1.1       root      172: @end itemize
                    173: 
1.1.1.2   root      174: SMP is supported with up to 255 CPUs.
                    175: 
                    176: Note that adlib is only available when QEMU was configured with
                    177: -enable-adlib
                    178: 
1.1       root      179: QEMU uses the PC BIOS from the Bochs project and the Plex86/Bochs LGPL
                    180: VGA BIOS.
                    181: 
1.1.1.2   root      182: QEMU uses YM3812 emulation by Tatsuyuki Satoh.
                    183: 
1.1       root      184: @c man end
                    185: 
1.1.1.3   root      186: @node pcsys_quickstart
1.1       root      187: @section Quick Start
                    188: 
                    189: Download and uncompress the linux image (@file{linux.img}) and type:
                    190: 
                    191: @example
                    192: qemu linux.img
                    193: @end example
                    194: 
                    195: Linux should boot and give you a prompt.
                    196: 
                    197: @node sec_invocation
                    198: @section Invocation
                    199: 
                    200: @example
                    201: @c man begin SYNOPSIS
1.1.1.6 ! root      202: usage: qemu [options] [@var{disk_image}]
1.1       root      203: @c man end
                    204: @end example
                    205: 
                    206: @c man begin OPTIONS
                    207: @var{disk_image} is a raw hard disk image for IDE hard disk 0.
                    208: 
                    209: General options:
                    210: @table @option
1.1.1.6 ! root      211: @item -M @var{machine}
        !           212: Select the emulated @var{machine} (@code{-M ?} for list)
1.1.1.2   root      213: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      214: @item -fda @var{file}
        !           215: @item -fdb @var{file}
1.1.1.3   root      216: Use @var{file} as floppy disk 0/1 image (@pxref{disk_images}). You can
1.1.1.5   root      217: use the host floppy by using @file{/dev/fd0} as filename (@pxref{host_drives}).
1.1       root      218: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      219: @item -hda @var{file}
        !           220: @item -hdb @var{file}
        !           221: @item -hdc @var{file}
        !           222: @item -hdd @var{file}
1.1.1.3   root      223: Use @var{file} as hard disk 0, 1, 2 or 3 image (@pxref{disk_images}).
1.1       root      224: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      225: @item -cdrom @var{file}
        !           226: Use @var{file} as CD-ROM image (you cannot use @option{-hdc} and
1.1       root      227: @option{-cdrom} at the same time). You can use the host CD-ROM by
1.1.1.5   root      228: using @file{/dev/cdrom} as filename (@pxref{host_drives}).
1.1       root      229: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      230: @item -drive @var{option}[,@var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]]
        !           231: 
        !           232: Define a new drive. Valid options are:
        !           233: 
        !           234: @table @code
        !           235: @item file=@var{file}
        !           236: This option defines which disk image (@pxref{disk_images}) to use with
        !           237: this drive.
        !           238: @item if=@var{interface}
        !           239: This option defines on which type on interface the drive is connected.
        !           240: Available types are: ide, scsi, sd, mtd, floppy, pflash.
        !           241: @item bus=@var{bus},unit=@var{unit}
        !           242: These options define where is connected the drive by defining the bus number and
        !           243: the unit id.
        !           244: @item index=@var{index}
        !           245: This option defines where is connected the drive by using an index in the list
        !           246: of available connectors of a given interface type.
        !           247: @item media=@var{media}
        !           248: This option defines the type of the media: disk or cdrom.
        !           249: @item cyls=@var{c},heads=@var{h},secs=@var{s}[,trans=@var{t}]
        !           250: These options have the same definition as they have in @option{-hdachs}.
        !           251: @item snapshot=@var{snapshot}
        !           252: @var{snapshot} is "on" or "off" and allows to enable snapshot for given drive (see @option{-snapshot}).
        !           253: @item cache=@var{cache}
        !           254: @var{cache} is "on" or "off" and allows to disable host cache to access data.
        !           255: @end table
        !           256: 
        !           257: Instead of @option{-cdrom} you can use:
        !           258: @example
        !           259: qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=cdrom
        !           260: @end example
        !           261: 
        !           262: Instead of @option{-hda}, @option{-hdb}, @option{-hdc}, @option{-hdd}, you can
        !           263: use:
        !           264: @example
        !           265: qemu -drive file=file,index=0,media=disk
        !           266: qemu -drive file=file,index=1,media=disk
        !           267: qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=disk
        !           268: qemu -drive file=file,index=3,media=disk
        !           269: @end example
        !           270: 
        !           271: You can connect a CDROM to the slave of ide0:
        !           272: @example
        !           273: qemu -drive file=file,if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom
        !           274: @end example
        !           275: 
        !           276: If you don't specify the "file=" argument, you define an empty drive:
        !           277: @example
        !           278: qemu -drive if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom
        !           279: @end example
        !           280: 
        !           281: You can connect a SCSI disk with unit ID 6 on the bus #0:
        !           282: @example
        !           283: qemu -drive file=file,if=scsi,bus=0,unit=6
        !           284: @end example
        !           285: 
        !           286: Instead of @option{-fda}, @option{-fdb}, you can use:
        !           287: @example
        !           288: qemu -drive file=file,index=0,if=floppy
        !           289: qemu -drive file=file,index=1,if=floppy
        !           290: @end example
        !           291: 
        !           292: By default, @var{interface} is "ide" and @var{index} is automatically
        !           293: incremented:
        !           294: @example
        !           295: qemu -drive file=a -drive file=b"
        !           296: @end example
        !           297: is interpreted like:
        !           298: @example
        !           299: qemu -hda a -hdb b
        !           300: @end example
        !           301: 
1.1.1.5   root      302: @item -boot [a|c|d|n]
                    303: Boot on floppy (a), hard disk (c), CD-ROM (d), or Etherboot (n). Hard disk boot
                    304: is the default.
1.1       root      305: 
                    306: @item -snapshot
                    307: Write to temporary files instead of disk image files. In this case,
                    308: the raw disk image you use is not written back. You can however force
1.1.1.5   root      309: the write back by pressing @key{C-a s} (@pxref{disk_images}).
1.1       root      310: 
1.1.1.4   root      311: @item -no-fd-bootchk
                    312: Disable boot signature checking for floppy disks in Bochs BIOS. It may
                    313: be needed to boot from old floppy disks.
                    314: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      315: @item -m @var{megs}
        !           316: Set virtual RAM size to @var{megs} megabytes. Default is 128 MiB.
1.1       root      317: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      318: @item -smp @var{n}
1.1.1.2   root      319: Simulate an SMP system with @var{n} CPUs. On the PC target, up to 255
1.1.1.6 ! root      320: CPUs are supported. On Sparc32 target, Linux limits the number of usable CPUs
        !           321: to 4.
1.1       root      322: 
1.1.1.2   root      323: @item -audio-help
1.1       root      324: 
1.1.1.2   root      325: Will show the audio subsystem help: list of drivers, tunable
                    326: parameters.
                    327: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      328: @item -soundhw @var{card1}[,@var{card2},...] or -soundhw all
1.1.1.2   root      329: 
                    330: Enable audio and selected sound hardware. Use ? to print all
                    331: available sound hardware.
                    332: 
                    333: @example
                    334: qemu -soundhw sb16,adlib hda
                    335: qemu -soundhw es1370 hda
                    336: qemu -soundhw all hda
                    337: qemu -soundhw ?
                    338: @end example
1.1       root      339: 
                    340: @item -localtime
                    341: Set the real time clock to local time (the default is to UTC
                    342: time). This option is needed to have correct date in MS-DOS or
                    343: Windows.
                    344: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      345: @item -startdate @var{date}
        !           346: Set the initial date of the real time clock. Valid format for
        !           347: @var{date} are: @code{now} or @code{2006-06-17T16:01:21} or
        !           348: @code{2006-06-17}. The default value is @code{now}.
1.1       root      349: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      350: @item -pidfile @var{file}
1.1       root      351: Store the QEMU process PID in @var{file}. It is useful if you launch QEMU
                    352: from a script.
                    353: 
1.1.1.5   root      354: @item -daemonize
                    355: Daemonize the QEMU process after initialization.  QEMU will not detach from
                    356: standard IO until it is ready to receive connections on any of its devices.
                    357: This option is a useful way for external programs to launch QEMU without having
                    358: to cope with initialization race conditions.
                    359: 
1.1       root      360: @item -win2k-hack
                    361: Use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug. After
                    362: Windows 2000 is installed, you no longer need this option (this option
                    363: slows down the IDE transfers).
                    364: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      365: @item -option-rom @var{file}
        !           366: Load the contents of @var{file} as an option ROM.
        !           367: This option is useful to load things like EtherBoot.
        !           368: 
        !           369: @item -name @var{name}
        !           370: Sets the @var{name} of the guest.
        !           371: This name will be display in the SDL window caption.
        !           372: The @var{name} will also be used for the VNC server.
        !           373: 
        !           374: @end table
        !           375: 
        !           376: Display options:
        !           377: @table @option
        !           378: 
        !           379: @item -nographic
        !           380: 
        !           381: Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option,
        !           382: you can totally disable graphical output so that QEMU is a simple
        !           383: command line application. The emulated serial port is redirected on
        !           384: the console. Therefore, you can still use QEMU to debug a Linux kernel
        !           385: with a serial console.
        !           386: 
        !           387: @item -no-frame
        !           388: 
        !           389: Do not use decorations for SDL windows and start them using the whole
        !           390: available screen space. This makes the using QEMU in a dedicated desktop
        !           391: workspace more convenient.
        !           392: 
        !           393: @item -full-screen
        !           394: Start in full screen.
        !           395: 
        !           396: @item -vnc @var{display}[,@var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]]
        !           397: 
        !           398: Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output.  With this option,
        !           399: you can have QEMU listen on VNC display @var{display} and redirect the VGA
        !           400: display over the VNC session.  It is very useful to enable the usb
        !           401: tablet device when using this option (option @option{-usbdevice
        !           402: tablet}). When using the VNC display, you must use the @option{-k}
        !           403: parameter to set the keyboard layout if you are not using en-us. Valid
        !           404: syntax for the @var{display} is
        !           405: 
        !           406: @table @code
        !           407: 
        !           408: @item @var{interface}:@var{d}
        !           409: 
        !           410: TCP connections will only be allowed from @var{interface} on display @var{d}.
        !           411: By convention the TCP port is 5900+@var{d}. Optionally, @var{interface} can
        !           412: be omitted in which case the server will bind to all interfaces.
        !           413: 
        !           414: @item @var{unix}:@var{path}
        !           415: 
        !           416: Connections will be allowed over UNIX domain sockets where @var{path} is the
        !           417: location of a unix socket to listen for connections on.
        !           418: 
        !           419: @item none
        !           420: 
        !           421: VNC is initialized by not started. The monitor @code{change} command can be used
        !           422: to later start the VNC server.
        !           423: 
        !           424: @end table
        !           425: 
        !           426: Following the @var{display} value there may be one or more @var{option} flags
        !           427: separated by commas. Valid options are
        !           428: 
        !           429: @table @code
        !           430: 
        !           431: @item password
        !           432: 
        !           433: Require that password based authentication is used for client connections.
        !           434: The password must be set separately using the @code{change} command in the
        !           435: @ref{pcsys_monitor}
        !           436: 
        !           437: @item tls
        !           438: 
        !           439: Require that client use TLS when communicating with the VNC server. This
        !           440: uses anonymous TLS credentials so is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle
        !           441: attack. It is recommended that this option be combined with either the
        !           442: @var{x509} or @var{x509verify} options.
        !           443: 
        !           444: @item x509=@var{/path/to/certificate/dir}
        !           445: 
        !           446: Valid if @option{tls} is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used
        !           447: for negotiating the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate
        !           448: to the client. It is recommended that a password be set on the VNC server
        !           449: to provide authentication of the client when this is used. The path following
        !           450: this option specifies where the x509 certificates are to be loaded from.
        !           451: See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on generating certificates.
        !           452: 
        !           453: @item x509verify=@var{/path/to/certificate/dir}
        !           454: 
        !           455: Valid if @option{tls} is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used
        !           456: for negotiating the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate
        !           457: to the client, and request that the client send its own x509 certificate.
        !           458: The server will validate the client's certificate against the CA certificate,
        !           459: and reject clients when validation fails. If the certificate authority is
        !           460: trusted, this is a sufficient authentication mechanism. You may still wish
        !           461: to set a password on the VNC server as a second authentication layer. The
        !           462: path following this option specifies where the x509 certificates are to
        !           463: be loaded from. See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on generating
        !           464: certificates.
        !           465: 
        !           466: @end table
        !           467: 
        !           468: @item -k @var{language}
        !           469: 
        !           470: Use keyboard layout @var{language} (for example @code{fr} for
        !           471: French). This option is only needed where it is not easy to get raw PC
        !           472: keycodes (e.g. on Macs, with some X11 servers or with a VNC
        !           473: display). You don't normally need to use it on PC/Linux or PC/Windows
        !           474: hosts.
        !           475: 
        !           476: The available layouts are:
        !           477: @example
        !           478: ar  de-ch  es  fo     fr-ca  hu  ja  mk     no  pt-br  sv
        !           479: da  en-gb  et  fr     fr-ch  is  lt  nl     pl  ru     th
        !           480: de  en-us  fi  fr-be  hr     it  lv  nl-be  pt  sl     tr
        !           481: @end example
        !           482: 
        !           483: The default is @code{en-us}.
1.1.1.5   root      484: 
1.1       root      485: @end table
                    486: 
1.1.1.2   root      487: USB options:
                    488: @table @option
                    489: 
                    490: @item -usb
                    491: Enable the USB driver (will be the default soon)
                    492: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      493: @item -usbdevice @var{devname}
1.1.1.4   root      494: Add the USB device @var{devname}. @xref{usb_devices}.
1.1.1.2   root      495: @end table
                    496: 
1.1       root      497: Network options:
                    498: 
                    499: @table @option
                    500: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      501: @item -net nic[,vlan=@var{n}][,macaddr=@var{addr}][,model=@var{type}]
1.1.1.2   root      502: Create a new Network Interface Card and connect it to VLAN @var{n} (@var{n}
1.1.1.6 ! root      503: = 0 is the default). The NIC is an ne2k_pci by default on the PC
1.1.1.2   root      504: target. Optionally, the MAC address can be changed. If no
                    505: @option{-net} option is specified, a single NIC is created.
1.1.1.6 ! root      506: Qemu can emulate several different models of network card.
        !           507: Valid values for @var{type} are
        !           508: @code{i82551}, @code{i82557b}, @code{i82559er},
        !           509: @code{ne2k_pci}, @code{ne2k_isa}, @code{pcnet}, @code{rtl8139},
        !           510: @code{smc91c111}, @code{lance} and @code{mcf_fec}.
        !           511: Not all devices are supported on all targets.  Use -net nic,model=?
        !           512: for a list of available devices for your target.
1.1.1.2   root      513: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      514: @item -net user[,vlan=@var{n}][,hostname=@var{name}]
1.1.1.2   root      515: Use the user mode network stack which requires no administrator
1.1.1.6 ! root      516: privilege to run.  @option{hostname=name} can be used to specify the client
1.1.1.3   root      517: hostname reported by the builtin DHCP server.
1.1       root      518: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      519: @item -net tap[,vlan=@var{n}][,fd=@var{h}][,ifname=@var{name}][,script=@var{file}]
1.1.1.2   root      520: Connect the host TAP network interface @var{name} to VLAN @var{n} and
                    521: use the network script @var{file} to configure it. The default
1.1.1.5   root      522: network script is @file{/etc/qemu-ifup}. Use @option{script=no} to
                    523: disable script execution. If @var{name} is not
1.1.1.6 ! root      524: provided, the OS automatically provides one. @option{fd}=@var{h} can be
1.1.1.2   root      525: used to specify the handle of an already opened host TAP interface. Example:
1.1       root      526: 
1.1.1.2   root      527: @example
                    528: qemu linux.img -net nic -net tap
                    529: @end example
1.1       root      530: 
1.1.1.2   root      531: More complicated example (two NICs, each one connected to a TAP device)
                    532: @example
                    533: qemu linux.img -net nic,vlan=0 -net tap,vlan=0,ifname=tap0 \
                    534:                -net nic,vlan=1 -net tap,vlan=1,ifname=tap1
                    535: @end example
1.1       root      536: 
                    537: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      538: @item -net socket[,vlan=@var{n}][,fd=@var{h}][,listen=[@var{host}]:@var{port}][,connect=@var{host}:@var{port}]
1.1       root      539: 
1.1.1.2   root      540: Connect the VLAN @var{n} to a remote VLAN in another QEMU virtual
                    541: machine using a TCP socket connection. If @option{listen} is
                    542: specified, QEMU waits for incoming connections on @var{port}
                    543: (@var{host} is optional). @option{connect} is used to connect to
1.1.1.6 ! root      544: another QEMU instance using the @option{listen} option. @option{fd}=@var{h}
1.1.1.2   root      545: specifies an already opened TCP socket.
                    546: 
                    547: Example:
                    548: @example
                    549: # launch a first QEMU instance
1.1.1.3   root      550: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
                    551:                -net socket,listen=:1234
                    552: # connect the VLAN 0 of this instance to the VLAN 0
                    553: # of the first instance
                    554: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
                    555:                -net socket,connect=127.0.0.1:1234
1.1.1.2   root      556: @end example
                    557: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      558: @item -net socket[,vlan=@var{n}][,fd=@var{h}][,mcast=@var{maddr}:@var{port}]
1.1.1.2   root      559: 
                    560: Create a VLAN @var{n} shared with another QEMU virtual
1.1.1.6 ! root      561: machines using a UDP multicast socket, effectively making a bus for
1.1.1.2   root      562: every QEMU with same multicast address @var{maddr} and @var{port}.
                    563: NOTES:
                    564: @enumerate
1.1.1.6 ! root      565: @item
        !           566: Several QEMU can be running on different hosts and share same bus (assuming
1.1.1.2   root      567: correct multicast setup for these hosts).
                    568: @item
                    569: mcast support is compatible with User Mode Linux (argument @option{eth@var{N}=mcast}), see
                    570: @url{http://user-mode-linux.sf.net}.
1.1.1.6 ! root      571: @item
        !           572: Use @option{fd=h} to specify an already opened UDP multicast socket.
1.1.1.2   root      573: @end enumerate
                    574: 
                    575: Example:
                    576: @example
                    577: # launch one QEMU instance
1.1.1.3   root      578: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
                    579:                -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
1.1.1.2   root      580: # launch another QEMU instance on same "bus"
1.1.1.3   root      581: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
                    582:                -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
1.1.1.2   root      583: # launch yet another QEMU instance on same "bus"
1.1.1.3   root      584: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:58 \
                    585:                -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
1.1.1.2   root      586: @end example
                    587: 
                    588: Example (User Mode Linux compat.):
                    589: @example
1.1.1.3   root      590: # launch QEMU instance (note mcast address selected
                    591: # is UML's default)
                    592: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
                    593:                -net socket,mcast=239.192.168.1:1102
1.1.1.2   root      594: # launch UML
                    595: /path/to/linux ubd0=/path/to/root_fs eth0=mcast
                    596: @end example
                    597: 
                    598: @item -net none
                    599: Indicate that no network devices should be configured. It is used to
1.1.1.3   root      600: override the default configuration (@option{-net nic -net user}) which
                    601: is activated if no @option{-net} options are provided.
1.1       root      602: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      603: @item -tftp @var{dir}
1.1       root      604: When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in TFTP
1.1.1.6 ! root      605: server. The files in @var{dir} will be exposed as the root of a TFTP server.
        !           606: The TFTP client on the guest must be configured in binary mode (use the command
        !           607: @code{bin} of the Unix TFTP client). The host IP address on the guest is as
        !           608: usual 10.0.2.2.
        !           609: 
        !           610: @item -bootp @var{file}
        !           611: When using the user mode network stack, broadcast @var{file} as the BOOTP
        !           612: filename.  In conjunction with @option{-tftp}, this can be used to network boot
        !           613: a guest from a local directory.
        !           614: 
        !           615: Example (using pxelinux):
        !           616: @example
        !           617: qemu -hda linux.img -boot n -tftp /path/to/tftp/files -bootp /pxelinux.0
        !           618: @end example
1.1       root      619: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      620: @item -smb @var{dir}
1.1       root      621: When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in SMB
1.1.1.6 ! root      622: server so that Windows OSes can access to the host files in @file{@var{dir}}
1.1       root      623: transparently.
                    624: 
                    625: In the guest Windows OS, the line:
                    626: @example
                    627: 10.0.2.4 smbserver
                    628: @end example
                    629: must be added in the file @file{C:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS} (for windows 9x/Me)
                    630: or @file{C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\ETC\LMHOSTS} (Windows NT/2000).
                    631: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      632: Then @file{@var{dir}} can be accessed in @file{\\smbserver\qemu}.
1.1       root      633: 
                    634: Note that a SAMBA server must be installed on the host OS in
1.1.1.5   root      635: @file{/usr/sbin/smbd}. QEMU was tested successfully with smbd version
1.1       root      636: 2.2.7a from the Red Hat 9 and version 3.0.10-1.fc3 from Fedora Core 3.
                    637: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      638: @item -redir [tcp|udp]:@var{host-port}:[@var{guest-host}]:@var{guest-port}
1.1       root      639: 
                    640: When using the user mode network stack, redirect incoming TCP or UDP
                    641: connections to the host port @var{host-port} to the guest
                    642: @var{guest-host} on guest port @var{guest-port}. If @var{guest-host}
                    643: is not specified, its value is 10.0.2.15 (default address given by the
                    644: built-in DHCP server).
                    645: 
                    646: For example, to redirect host X11 connection from screen 1 to guest
                    647: screen 0, use the following:
                    648: 
                    649: @example
                    650: # on the host
                    651: qemu -redir tcp:6001::6000 [...]
                    652: # this host xterm should open in the guest X11 server
                    653: xterm -display :1
                    654: @end example
                    655: 
                    656: To redirect telnet connections from host port 5555 to telnet port on
                    657: the guest, use the following:
                    658: 
                    659: @example
                    660: # on the host
                    661: qemu -redir tcp:5555::23 [...]
                    662: telnet localhost 5555
                    663: @end example
                    664: 
                    665: Then when you use on the host @code{telnet localhost 5555}, you
                    666: connect to the guest telnet server.
                    667: 
                    668: @end table
                    669: 
1.1.1.2   root      670: Linux boot specific: When using these options, you can use a given
1.1       root      671: Linux kernel without installing it in the disk image. It can be useful
                    672: for easier testing of various kernels.
                    673: 
                    674: @table @option
                    675: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      676: @item -kernel @var{bzImage}
1.1       root      677: Use @var{bzImage} as kernel image.
                    678: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      679: @item -append @var{cmdline}
1.1       root      680: Use @var{cmdline} as kernel command line
                    681: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      682: @item -initrd @var{file}
1.1       root      683: Use @var{file} as initial ram disk.
                    684: 
                    685: @end table
                    686: 
                    687: Debug/Expert options:
                    688: @table @option
                    689: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      690: @item -serial @var{dev}
1.1.1.4   root      691: Redirect the virtual serial port to host character device
                    692: @var{dev}. The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and
                    693: @code{stdio} in non graphical mode.
                    694: 
                    695: This option can be used several times to simulate up to 4 serials
                    696: ports.
                    697: 
1.1.1.5   root      698: Use @code{-serial none} to disable all serial ports.
                    699: 
1.1.1.4   root      700: Available character devices are:
1.1       root      701: @table @code
1.1.1.6 ! root      702: @item vc[:WxH]
        !           703: Virtual console. Optionally, a width and height can be given in pixel with
        !           704: @example
        !           705: vc:800x600
        !           706: @end example
        !           707: It is also possible to specify width or height in characters:
        !           708: @example
        !           709: vc:80Cx24C
        !           710: @end example
1.1       root      711: @item pty
                    712: [Linux only] Pseudo TTY (a new PTY is automatically allocated)
1.1.1.5   root      713: @item none
                    714: No device is allocated.
1.1       root      715: @item null
                    716: void device
1.1.1.2   root      717: @item /dev/XXX
                    718: [Linux only] Use host tty, e.g. @file{/dev/ttyS0}. The host serial port
                    719: parameters are set according to the emulated ones.
1.1.1.6 ! root      720: @item /dev/parport@var{N}
1.1.1.2   root      721: [Linux only, parallel port only] Use host parallel port
1.1.1.6 ! root      722: @var{N}. Currently SPP and EPP parallel port features can be used.
        !           723: @item file:@var{filename}
        !           724: Write output to @var{filename}. No character can be read.
1.1       root      725: @item stdio
                    726: [Unix only] standard input/output
1.1.1.6 ! root      727: @item pipe:@var{filename}
1.1.1.4   root      728: name pipe @var{filename}
1.1.1.6 ! root      729: @item COM@var{n}
1.1.1.4   root      730: [Windows only] Use host serial port @var{n}
1.1.1.6 ! root      731: @item udp:[@var{remote_host}]:@var{remote_port}[@@[@var{src_ip}]:@var{src_port}]
        !           732: This implements UDP Net Console.
        !           733: When @var{remote_host} or @var{src_ip} are not specified
        !           734: they default to @code{0.0.0.0}.
        !           735: When not using a specified @var{src_port} a random port is automatically chosen.
1.1.1.4   root      736: 
                    737: If you just want a simple readonly console you can use @code{netcat} or
                    738: @code{nc}, by starting qemu with: @code{-serial udp::4555} and nc as:
                    739: @code{nc -u -l -p 4555}. Any time qemu writes something to that port it
                    740: will appear in the netconsole session.
                    741: 
                    742: If you plan to send characters back via netconsole or you want to stop
                    743: and start qemu a lot of times, you should have qemu use the same
                    744: source port each time by using something like @code{-serial
                    745: udp::4555@@:4556} to qemu. Another approach is to use a patched
                    746: version of netcat which can listen to a TCP port and send and receive
                    747: characters via udp.  If you have a patched version of netcat which
                    748: activates telnet remote echo and single char transfer, then you can
                    749: use the following options to step up a netcat redirector to allow
                    750: telnet on port 5555 to access the qemu port.
                    751: @table @code
                    752: @item Qemu Options:
                    753: -serial udp::4555@@:4556
                    754: @item netcat options:
                    755: -u -P 4555 -L 0.0.0.0:4556 -t -p 5555 -I -T
                    756: @item telnet options:
                    757: localhost 5555
1.1       root      758: @end table
                    759: 
1.1.1.4   root      760: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      761: @item tcp:[@var{host}]:@var{port}[,@var{server}][,nowait][,nodelay]
1.1.1.4   root      762: The TCP Net Console has two modes of operation.  It can send the serial
                    763: I/O to a location or wait for a connection from a location.  By default
                    764: the TCP Net Console is sent to @var{host} at the @var{port}.  If you use
1.1.1.5   root      765: the @var{server} option QEMU will wait for a client socket application
                    766: to connect to the port before continuing, unless the @code{nowait}
                    767: option was specified.  The @code{nodelay} option disables the Nagle buffering
1.1.1.6 ! root      768: algorithm.  If @var{host} is omitted, 0.0.0.0 is assumed. Only
1.1.1.4   root      769: one TCP connection at a time is accepted. You can use @code{telnet} to
                    770: connect to the corresponding character device.
                    771: @table @code
                    772: @item Example to send tcp console to 192.168.0.2 port 4444
                    773: -serial tcp:192.168.0.2:4444
                    774: @item Example to listen and wait on port 4444 for connection
                    775: -serial tcp::4444,server
                    776: @item Example to not wait and listen on ip 192.168.0.100 port 4444
                    777: -serial tcp:192.168.0.100:4444,server,nowait
                    778: @end table
                    779: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      780: @item telnet:@var{host}:@var{port}[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]
1.1.1.4   root      781: The telnet protocol is used instead of raw tcp sockets.  The options
                    782: work the same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp}.  The
                    783: difference is that the port acts like a telnet server or client using
                    784: telnet option negotiation.  This will also allow you to send the
                    785: MAGIC_SYSRQ sequence if you use a telnet that supports sending the break
                    786: sequence.  Typically in unix telnet you do it with Control-] and then
                    787: type "send break" followed by pressing the enter key.
                    788: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      789: @item unix:@var{path}[,server][,nowait]
1.1.1.5   root      790: A unix domain socket is used instead of a tcp socket.  The option works the
                    791: same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp} except the unix domain socket
                    792: @var{path} is used for connections.
                    793: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      794: @item mon:@var{dev_string}
        !           795: This is a special option to allow the monitor to be multiplexed onto
        !           796: another serial port.  The monitor is accessed with key sequence of
        !           797: @key{Control-a} and then pressing @key{c}. See monitor access
        !           798: @ref{pcsys_keys} in the -nographic section for more keys.
        !           799: @var{dev_string} should be any one of the serial devices specified
        !           800: above.  An example to multiplex the monitor onto a telnet server
        !           801: listening on port 4444 would be:
        !           802: @table @code
        !           803: @item -serial mon:telnet::4444,server,nowait
        !           804: @end table
        !           805: 
1.1.1.4   root      806: @end table
1.1       root      807: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      808: @item -parallel @var{dev}
1.1.1.2   root      809: Redirect the virtual parallel port to host device @var{dev} (same
                    810: devices as the serial port). On Linux hosts, @file{/dev/parportN} can
                    811: be used to use hardware devices connected on the corresponding host
                    812: parallel port.
                    813: 
                    814: This option can be used several times to simulate up to 3 parallel
                    815: ports.
                    816: 
1.1.1.5   root      817: Use @code{-parallel none} to disable all parallel ports.
                    818: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      819: @item -monitor @var{dev}
1.1       root      820: Redirect the monitor to host device @var{dev} (same devices as the
                    821: serial port).
                    822: The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and @code{stdio} in
                    823: non graphical mode.
                    824: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      825: @item -echr numeric_ascii_value
        !           826: Change the escape character used for switching to the monitor when using
        !           827: monitor and serial sharing.  The default is @code{0x01} when using the
        !           828: @code{-nographic} option.  @code{0x01} is equal to pressing
        !           829: @code{Control-a}.  You can select a different character from the ascii
        !           830: control keys where 1 through 26 map to Control-a through Control-z.  For
        !           831: instance you could use the either of the following to change the escape
        !           832: character to Control-t.
        !           833: @table @code
        !           834: @item -echr 0x14
        !           835: @item -echr 20
        !           836: @end table
        !           837: 
1.1       root      838: @item -s
1.1.1.6 ! root      839: Wait gdb connection to port 1234 (@pxref{gdb_usage}).
        !           840: @item -p @var{port}
1.1.1.5   root      841: Change gdb connection port.  @var{port} can be either a decimal number
                    842: to specify a TCP port, or a host device (same devices as the serial port).
1.1       root      843: @item -S
                    844: Do not start CPU at startup (you must type 'c' in the monitor).
1.1.1.6 ! root      845: @item -d
1.1       root      846: Output log in /tmp/qemu.log
1.1.1.6 ! root      847: @item -hdachs @var{c},@var{h},@var{s},[,@var{t}]
1.1       root      848: Force hard disk 0 physical geometry (1 <= @var{c} <= 16383, 1 <=
                    849: @var{h} <= 16, 1 <= @var{s} <= 63) and optionally force the BIOS
                    850: translation mode (@var{t}=none, lba or auto). Usually QEMU can guess
1.1.1.6 ! root      851: all those parameters. This option is useful for old MS-DOS disk
1.1       root      852: images.
                    853: 
1.1.1.5   root      854: @item -L path
                    855: Set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps.
                    856: 
1.1       root      857: @item -std-vga
                    858: Simulate a standard VGA card with Bochs VBE extensions (default is
1.1.1.4   root      859: Cirrus Logic GD5446 PCI VGA). If your guest OS supports the VESA 2.0
                    860: VBE extensions (e.g. Windows XP) and if you want to use high
                    861: resolution modes (>= 1280x1024x16) then you should use this option.
                    862: 
                    863: @item -no-acpi
                    864: Disable ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support. Use
                    865: it if your guest OS complains about ACPI problems (PC target machine
                    866: only).
                    867: 
1.1.1.5   root      868: @item -no-reboot
                    869: Exit instead of rebooting.
                    870: 
1.1       root      871: @item -loadvm file
                    872: Start right away with a saved state (@code{loadvm} in monitor)
1.1.1.5   root      873: 
                    874: @item -semihosting
1.1.1.6 ! root      875: Enable semihosting syscall emulation (ARM and M68K target machines only).
        !           876: 
        !           877: On ARM this implements the "Angel" interface.
        !           878: On M68K this implements the "ColdFire GDB" interface used by libgloss.
        !           879: 
1.1.1.5   root      880: Note that this allows guest direct access to the host filesystem,
                    881: so should only be used with trusted guest OS.
1.1       root      882: @end table
                    883: 
                    884: @c man end
                    885: 
1.1.1.3   root      886: @node pcsys_keys
1.1       root      887: @section Keys
                    888: 
                    889: @c man begin OPTIONS
                    890: 
                    891: During the graphical emulation, you can use the following keys:
                    892: @table @key
                    893: @item Ctrl-Alt-f
                    894: Toggle full screen
                    895: 
                    896: @item Ctrl-Alt-n
                    897: Switch to virtual console 'n'. Standard console mappings are:
                    898: @table @emph
                    899: @item 1
                    900: Target system display
                    901: @item 2
                    902: Monitor
                    903: @item 3
                    904: Serial port
                    905: @end table
                    906: 
                    907: @item Ctrl-Alt
                    908: Toggle mouse and keyboard grab.
                    909: @end table
                    910: 
                    911: In the virtual consoles, you can use @key{Ctrl-Up}, @key{Ctrl-Down},
                    912: @key{Ctrl-PageUp} and @key{Ctrl-PageDown} to move in the back log.
                    913: 
                    914: During emulation, if you are using the @option{-nographic} option, use
                    915: @key{Ctrl-a h} to get terminal commands:
                    916: 
                    917: @table @key
                    918: @item Ctrl-a h
                    919: Print this help
1.1.1.6 ! root      920: @item Ctrl-a x
1.1.1.5   root      921: Exit emulator
1.1.1.6 ! root      922: @item Ctrl-a s
1.1       root      923: Save disk data back to file (if -snapshot)
1.1.1.6 ! root      924: @item Ctrl-a t
        !           925: toggle console timestamps
1.1       root      926: @item Ctrl-a b
                    927: Send break (magic sysrq in Linux)
                    928: @item Ctrl-a c
                    929: Switch between console and monitor
                    930: @item Ctrl-a Ctrl-a
                    931: Send Ctrl-a
                    932: @end table
                    933: @c man end
                    934: 
                    935: @ignore
                    936: 
                    937: @c man begin SEEALSO
                    938: The HTML documentation of QEMU for more precise information and Linux
                    939: user mode emulator invocation.
                    940: @c man end
                    941: 
                    942: @c man begin AUTHOR
                    943: Fabrice Bellard
                    944: @c man end
                    945: 
                    946: @end ignore
                    947: 
1.1.1.3   root      948: @node pcsys_monitor
1.1       root      949: @section QEMU Monitor
                    950: 
                    951: The QEMU monitor is used to give complex commands to the QEMU
                    952: emulator. You can use it to:
                    953: 
                    954: @itemize @minus
                    955: 
                    956: @item
1.1.1.6 ! root      957: Remove or insert removable media images
        !           958: (such as CD-ROM or floppies).
1.1       root      959: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      960: @item
1.1       root      961: Freeze/unfreeze the Virtual Machine (VM) and save or restore its state
                    962: from a disk file.
                    963: 
                    964: @item Inspect the VM state without an external debugger.
                    965: 
                    966: @end itemize
                    967: 
                    968: @subsection Commands
                    969: 
                    970: The following commands are available:
                    971: 
                    972: @table @option
                    973: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      974: @item help or ? [@var{cmd}]
1.1       root      975: Show the help for all commands or just for command @var{cmd}.
                    976: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      977: @item commit
        !           978: Commit changes to the disk images (if -snapshot is used).
1.1       root      979: 
1.1.1.6 ! root      980: @item info @var{subcommand}
        !           981: Show various information about the system state.
1.1       root      982: 
                    983: @table @option
                    984: @item info network
1.1.1.2   root      985: show the various VLANs and the associated devices
1.1       root      986: @item info block
                    987: show the block devices
                    988: @item info registers
                    989: show the cpu registers
                    990: @item info history
                    991: show the command line history
1.1.1.2   root      992: @item info pci
                    993: show emulated PCI device
                    994: @item info usb
                    995: show USB devices plugged on the virtual USB hub
                    996: @item info usbhost
                    997: show all USB host devices
1.1.1.4   root      998: @item info capture
                    999: show information about active capturing
1.1.1.5   root     1000: @item info snapshots
                   1001: show list of VM snapshots
                   1002: @item info mice
                   1003: show which guest mouse is receiving events
1.1       root     1004: @end table
                   1005: 
                   1006: @item q or quit
                   1007: Quit the emulator.
                   1008: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1009: @item eject [-f] @var{device}
        !          1010: Eject a removable medium (use -f to force it).
        !          1011: 
        !          1012: @item change @var{device} @var{setting}
        !          1013: 
        !          1014: Change the configuration of a device.
        !          1015: 
        !          1016: @table @option
        !          1017: @item change @var{diskdevice} @var{filename}
        !          1018: Change the medium for a removable disk device to point to @var{filename}. eg
        !          1019: 
        !          1020: @example
        !          1021: (qemu) change cdrom /path/to/some.iso
        !          1022: @end example
        !          1023: 
        !          1024: @item change vnc @var{display},@var{options}
        !          1025: Change the configuration of the VNC server. The valid syntax for @var{display}
        !          1026: and @var{options} are described at @ref{sec_invocation}. eg
        !          1027: 
        !          1028: @example
        !          1029: (qemu) change vnc localhost:1
        !          1030: @end example
        !          1031: 
        !          1032: @item change vnc password
        !          1033: 
        !          1034: Change the password associated with the VNC server. The monitor will prompt for
        !          1035: the new password to be entered. VNC passwords are only significant upto 8 letters.
        !          1036: eg.
        !          1037: 
        !          1038: @example
        !          1039: (qemu) change vnc password
        !          1040: Password: ********
        !          1041: @end example
1.1       root     1042: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1043: @end table
1.1       root     1044: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1045: @item screendump @var{filename}
1.1       root     1046: Save screen into PPM image @var{filename}.
                   1047: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1048: @item mouse_move @var{dx} @var{dy} [@var{dz}]
1.1.1.5   root     1049: Move the active mouse to the specified coordinates @var{dx} @var{dy}
                   1050: with optional scroll axis @var{dz}.
                   1051: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1052: @item mouse_button @var{val}
1.1.1.5   root     1053: Change the active mouse button state @var{val} (1=L, 2=M, 4=R).
                   1054: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1055: @item mouse_set @var{index}
1.1.1.5   root     1056: Set which mouse device receives events at given @var{index}, index
                   1057: can be obtained with
                   1058: @example
                   1059: info mice
                   1060: @end example
                   1061: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1062: @item wavcapture @var{filename} [@var{frequency} [@var{bits} [@var{channels}]]]
1.1.1.4   root     1063: Capture audio into @var{filename}. Using sample rate @var{frequency}
                   1064: bits per sample @var{bits} and number of channels @var{channels}.
                   1065: 
                   1066: Defaults:
                   1067: @itemize @minus
                   1068: @item Sample rate = 44100 Hz - CD quality
                   1069: @item Bits = 16
                   1070: @item Number of channels = 2 - Stereo
                   1071: @end itemize
                   1072: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1073: @item stopcapture @var{index}
1.1.1.4   root     1074: Stop capture with a given @var{index}, index can be obtained with
                   1075: @example
                   1076: info capture
                   1077: @end example
                   1078: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1079: @item log @var{item1}[,...]
1.1       root     1080: Activate logging of the specified items to @file{/tmp/qemu.log}.
                   1081: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1082: @item savevm [@var{tag}|@var{id}]
1.1.1.5   root     1083: Create a snapshot of the whole virtual machine. If @var{tag} is
                   1084: provided, it is used as human readable identifier. If there is already
                   1085: a snapshot with the same tag or ID, it is replaced. More info at
                   1086: @ref{vm_snapshots}.
                   1087: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1088: @item loadvm @var{tag}|@var{id}
1.1.1.5   root     1089: Set the whole virtual machine to the snapshot identified by the tag
                   1090: @var{tag} or the unique snapshot ID @var{id}.
1.1       root     1091: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1092: @item delvm @var{tag}|@var{id}
1.1.1.5   root     1093: Delete the snapshot identified by @var{tag} or @var{id}.
1.1       root     1094: 
                   1095: @item stop
                   1096: Stop emulation.
                   1097: 
                   1098: @item c or cont
                   1099: Resume emulation.
                   1100: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1101: @item gdbserver [@var{port}]
        !          1102: Start gdbserver session (default @var{port}=1234)
1.1       root     1103: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1104: @item x/fmt @var{addr}
1.1       root     1105: Virtual memory dump starting at @var{addr}.
                   1106: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1107: @item xp /@var{fmt} @var{addr}
1.1       root     1108: Physical memory dump starting at @var{addr}.
                   1109: 
                   1110: @var{fmt} is a format which tells the command how to format the
                   1111: data. Its syntax is: @option{/@{count@}@{format@}@{size@}}
                   1112: 
                   1113: @table @var
1.1.1.6 ! root     1114: @item count
1.1       root     1115: is the number of items to be dumped.
                   1116: 
                   1117: @item format
1.1.1.6 ! root     1118: can be x (hex), d (signed decimal), u (unsigned decimal), o (octal),
1.1       root     1119: c (char) or i (asm instruction).
                   1120: 
                   1121: @item size
                   1122: can be b (8 bits), h (16 bits), w (32 bits) or g (64 bits). On x86,
                   1123: @code{h} or @code{w} can be specified with the @code{i} format to
                   1124: respectively select 16 or 32 bit code instruction size.
                   1125: 
                   1126: @end table
                   1127: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1128: Examples:
1.1       root     1129: @itemize
                   1130: @item
                   1131: Dump 10 instructions at the current instruction pointer:
1.1.1.6 ! root     1132: @example
1.1       root     1133: (qemu) x/10i $eip
                   1134: 0x90107063:  ret
                   1135: 0x90107064:  sti
                   1136: 0x90107065:  lea    0x0(%esi,1),%esi
                   1137: 0x90107069:  lea    0x0(%edi,1),%edi
                   1138: 0x90107070:  ret
                   1139: 0x90107071:  jmp    0x90107080
                   1140: 0x90107073:  nop
                   1141: 0x90107074:  nop
                   1142: 0x90107075:  nop
                   1143: 0x90107076:  nop
                   1144: @end example
                   1145: 
                   1146: @item
                   1147: Dump 80 16 bit values at the start of the video memory.
1.1.1.6 ! root     1148: @smallexample
1.1       root     1149: (qemu) xp/80hx 0xb8000
                   1150: 0x000b8000: 0x0b50 0x0b6c 0x0b65 0x0b78 0x0b38 0x0b36 0x0b2f 0x0b42
                   1151: 0x000b8010: 0x0b6f 0x0b63 0x0b68 0x0b73 0x0b20 0x0b56 0x0b47 0x0b41
                   1152: 0x000b8020: 0x0b42 0x0b69 0x0b6f 0x0b73 0x0b20 0x0b63 0x0b75 0x0b72
                   1153: 0x000b8030: 0x0b72 0x0b65 0x0b6e 0x0b74 0x0b2d 0x0b63 0x0b76 0x0b73
                   1154: 0x000b8040: 0x0b20 0x0b30 0x0b35 0x0b20 0x0b4e 0x0b6f 0x0b76 0x0b20
                   1155: 0x000b8050: 0x0b32 0x0b30 0x0b30 0x0b33 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
                   1156: 0x000b8060: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
                   1157: 0x000b8070: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
                   1158: 0x000b8080: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
                   1159: 0x000b8090: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
1.1.1.3   root     1160: @end smallexample
1.1       root     1161: @end itemize
                   1162: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1163: @item p or print/@var{fmt} @var{expr}
1.1       root     1164: 
                   1165: Print expression value. Only the @var{format} part of @var{fmt} is
                   1166: used.
                   1167: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1168: @item sendkey @var{keys}
1.1       root     1169: 
                   1170: Send @var{keys} to the emulator. Use @code{-} to press several keys
                   1171: simultaneously. Example:
                   1172: @example
                   1173: sendkey ctrl-alt-f1
                   1174: @end example
                   1175: 
                   1176: This command is useful to send keys that your graphical user interface
                   1177: intercepts at low level, such as @code{ctrl-alt-f1} in X Window.
                   1178: 
                   1179: @item system_reset
                   1180: 
                   1181: Reset the system.
                   1182: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1183: @item usb_add @var{devname}
1.1.1.2   root     1184: 
1.1.1.4   root     1185: Add the USB device @var{devname}.  For details of available devices see
                   1186: @ref{usb_devices}
1.1.1.2   root     1187: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1188: @item usb_del @var{devname}
1.1.1.2   root     1189: 
                   1190: Remove the USB device @var{devname} from the QEMU virtual USB
                   1191: hub. @var{devname} has the syntax @code{bus.addr}. Use the monitor
                   1192: command @code{info usb} to see the devices you can remove.
                   1193: 
1.1       root     1194: @end table
                   1195: 
                   1196: @subsection Integer expressions
                   1197: 
                   1198: The monitor understands integers expressions for every integer
                   1199: argument. You can use register names to get the value of specifics
                   1200: CPU registers by prefixing them with @emph{$}.
                   1201: 
                   1202: @node disk_images
                   1203: @section Disk Images
                   1204: 
                   1205: Since version 0.6.1, QEMU supports many disk image formats, including
                   1206: growable disk images (their size increase as non empty sectors are
1.1.1.5   root     1207: written), compressed and encrypted disk images. Version 0.8.3 added
                   1208: the new qcow2 disk image format which is essential to support VM
                   1209: snapshots.
1.1       root     1210: 
1.1.1.3   root     1211: @menu
                   1212: * disk_images_quickstart::    Quick start for disk image creation
                   1213: * disk_images_snapshot_mode:: Snapshot mode
1.1.1.5   root     1214: * vm_snapshots::              VM snapshots
1.1.1.3   root     1215: * qemu_img_invocation::       qemu-img Invocation
1.1.1.5   root     1216: * host_drives::               Using host drives
1.1.1.3   root     1217: * disk_images_fat_images::    Virtual FAT disk images
                   1218: @end menu
                   1219: 
                   1220: @node disk_images_quickstart
1.1       root     1221: @subsection Quick start for disk image creation
                   1222: 
                   1223: You can create a disk image with the command:
                   1224: @example
                   1225: qemu-img create myimage.img mysize
                   1226: @end example
                   1227: where @var{myimage.img} is the disk image filename and @var{mysize} is its
                   1228: size in kilobytes. You can add an @code{M} suffix to give the size in
                   1229: megabytes and a @code{G} suffix for gigabytes.
                   1230: 
1.1.1.3   root     1231: See @ref{qemu_img_invocation} for more information.
1.1       root     1232: 
1.1.1.3   root     1233: @node disk_images_snapshot_mode
1.1       root     1234: @subsection Snapshot mode
                   1235: 
                   1236: If you use the option @option{-snapshot}, all disk images are
                   1237: considered as read only. When sectors in written, they are written in
                   1238: a temporary file created in @file{/tmp}. You can however force the
                   1239: write back to the raw disk images by using the @code{commit} monitor
                   1240: command (or @key{C-a s} in the serial console).
                   1241: 
1.1.1.5   root     1242: @node vm_snapshots
                   1243: @subsection VM snapshots
                   1244: 
                   1245: VM snapshots are snapshots of the complete virtual machine including
                   1246: CPU state, RAM, device state and the content of all the writable
                   1247: disks. In order to use VM snapshots, you must have at least one non
                   1248: removable and writable block device using the @code{qcow2} disk image
                   1249: format. Normally this device is the first virtual hard drive.
                   1250: 
                   1251: Use the monitor command @code{savevm} to create a new VM snapshot or
                   1252: replace an existing one. A human readable name can be assigned to each
                   1253: snapshot in addition to its numerical ID.
                   1254: 
                   1255: Use @code{loadvm} to restore a VM snapshot and @code{delvm} to remove
                   1256: a VM snapshot. @code{info snapshots} lists the available snapshots
                   1257: with their associated information:
                   1258: 
                   1259: @example
                   1260: (qemu) info snapshots
                   1261: Snapshot devices: hda
                   1262: Snapshot list (from hda):
                   1263: ID        TAG                 VM SIZE                DATE       VM CLOCK
                   1264: 1         start                   41M 2006-08-06 12:38:02   00:00:14.954
                   1265: 2                                 40M 2006-08-06 12:43:29   00:00:18.633
                   1266: 3         msys                    40M 2006-08-06 12:44:04   00:00:23.514
                   1267: @end example
                   1268: 
                   1269: A VM snapshot is made of a VM state info (its size is shown in
                   1270: @code{info snapshots}) and a snapshot of every writable disk image.
                   1271: The VM state info is stored in the first @code{qcow2} non removable
                   1272: and writable block device. The disk image snapshots are stored in
                   1273: every disk image. The size of a snapshot in a disk image is difficult
                   1274: to evaluate and is not shown by @code{info snapshots} because the
                   1275: associated disk sectors are shared among all the snapshots to save
                   1276: disk space (otherwise each snapshot would need a full copy of all the
                   1277: disk images).
                   1278: 
                   1279: When using the (unrelated) @code{-snapshot} option
                   1280: (@ref{disk_images_snapshot_mode}), you can always make VM snapshots,
                   1281: but they are deleted as soon as you exit QEMU.
                   1282: 
                   1283: VM snapshots currently have the following known limitations:
                   1284: @itemize
1.1.1.6 ! root     1285: @item
1.1.1.5   root     1286: They cannot cope with removable devices if they are removed or
                   1287: inserted after a snapshot is done.
1.1.1.6 ! root     1288: @item
1.1.1.5   root     1289: A few device drivers still have incomplete snapshot support so their
                   1290: state is not saved or restored properly (in particular USB).
                   1291: @end itemize
                   1292: 
1.1       root     1293: @node qemu_img_invocation
                   1294: @subsection @code{qemu-img} Invocation
                   1295: 
                   1296: @include qemu-img.texi
                   1297: 
1.1.1.5   root     1298: @node host_drives
                   1299: @subsection Using host drives
                   1300: 
                   1301: In addition to disk image files, QEMU can directly access host
                   1302: devices. We describe here the usage for QEMU version >= 0.8.3.
                   1303: 
                   1304: @subsubsection Linux
                   1305: 
                   1306: On Linux, you can directly use the host device filename instead of a
1.1.1.6 ! root     1307: disk image filename provided you have enough privileges to access
1.1.1.5   root     1308: it. For example, use @file{/dev/cdrom} to access to the CDROM or
                   1309: @file{/dev/fd0} for the floppy.
                   1310: 
                   1311: @table @code
                   1312: @item CD
                   1313: You can specify a CDROM device even if no CDROM is loaded. QEMU has
                   1314: specific code to detect CDROM insertion or removal. CDROM ejection by
                   1315: the guest OS is supported. Currently only data CDs are supported.
                   1316: @item Floppy
                   1317: You can specify a floppy device even if no floppy is loaded. Floppy
                   1318: removal is currently not detected accurately (if you change floppy
                   1319: without doing floppy access while the floppy is not loaded, the guest
                   1320: OS will think that the same floppy is loaded).
                   1321: @item Hard disks
                   1322: Hard disks can be used. Normally you must specify the whole disk
                   1323: (@file{/dev/hdb} instead of @file{/dev/hdb1}) so that the guest OS can
                   1324: see it as a partitioned disk. WARNING: unless you know what you do, it
                   1325: is better to only make READ-ONLY accesses to the hard disk otherwise
                   1326: you may corrupt your host data (use the @option{-snapshot} command
                   1327: line option or modify the device permissions accordingly).
                   1328: @end table
                   1329: 
                   1330: @subsubsection Windows
                   1331: 
                   1332: @table @code
                   1333: @item CD
1.1.1.6 ! root     1334: The preferred syntax is the drive letter (e.g. @file{d:}). The
1.1.1.5   root     1335: alternate syntax @file{\\.\d:} is supported. @file{/dev/cdrom} is
                   1336: supported as an alias to the first CDROM drive.
                   1337: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1338: Currently there is no specific code to handle removable media, so it
1.1.1.5   root     1339: is better to use the @code{change} or @code{eject} monitor commands to
                   1340: change or eject media.
                   1341: @item Hard disks
1.1.1.6 ! root     1342: Hard disks can be used with the syntax: @file{\\.\PhysicalDrive@var{N}}
1.1.1.5   root     1343: where @var{N} is the drive number (0 is the first hard disk).
                   1344: 
                   1345: WARNING: unless you know what you do, it is better to only make
                   1346: READ-ONLY accesses to the hard disk otherwise you may corrupt your
                   1347: host data (use the @option{-snapshot} command line so that the
                   1348: modifications are written in a temporary file).
                   1349: @end table
                   1350: 
                   1351: 
                   1352: @subsubsection Mac OS X
                   1353: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1354: @file{/dev/cdrom} is an alias to the first CDROM.
1.1.1.5   root     1355: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1356: Currently there is no specific code to handle removable media, so it
1.1.1.5   root     1357: is better to use the @code{change} or @code{eject} monitor commands to
                   1358: change or eject media.
                   1359: 
1.1.1.3   root     1360: @node disk_images_fat_images
1.1.1.2   root     1361: @subsection Virtual FAT disk images
                   1362: 
                   1363: QEMU can automatically create a virtual FAT disk image from a
                   1364: directory tree. In order to use it, just type:
                   1365: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1366: @example
1.1.1.2   root     1367: qemu linux.img -hdb fat:/my_directory
                   1368: @end example
                   1369: 
                   1370: Then you access access to all the files in the @file{/my_directory}
                   1371: directory without having to copy them in a disk image or to export
                   1372: them via SAMBA or NFS. The default access is @emph{read-only}.
1.1       root     1373: 
1.1.1.2   root     1374: Floppies can be emulated with the @code{:floppy:} option:
1.1       root     1375: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1376: @example
1.1.1.2   root     1377: qemu linux.img -fda fat:floppy:/my_directory
                   1378: @end example
1.1       root     1379: 
1.1.1.2   root     1380: A read/write support is available for testing (beta stage) with the
                   1381: @code{:rw:} option:
                   1382: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1383: @example
1.1.1.2   root     1384: qemu linux.img -fda fat:floppy:rw:/my_directory
                   1385: @end example
                   1386: 
                   1387: What you should @emph{never} do:
                   1388: @itemize
                   1389: @item use non-ASCII filenames ;
                   1390: @item use "-snapshot" together with ":rw:" ;
                   1391: @item expect it to work when loadvm'ing ;
                   1392: @item write to the FAT directory on the host system while accessing it with the guest system.
                   1393: @end itemize
                   1394: 
1.1.1.3   root     1395: @node pcsys_network
1.1.1.2   root     1396: @section Network emulation
                   1397: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1398: QEMU can simulate several network cards (PCI or ISA cards on the PC
1.1.1.2   root     1399: target) and can connect them to an arbitrary number of Virtual Local
                   1400: Area Networks (VLANs). Host TAP devices can be connected to any QEMU
                   1401: VLAN. VLAN can be connected between separate instances of QEMU to
1.1.1.6 ! root     1402: simulate large networks. For simpler usage, a non privileged user mode
1.1.1.2   root     1403: network stack can replace the TAP device to have a basic network
                   1404: connection.
                   1405: 
                   1406: @subsection VLANs
                   1407: 
                   1408: QEMU simulates several VLANs. A VLAN can be symbolised as a virtual
                   1409: connection between several network devices. These devices can be for
                   1410: example QEMU virtual Ethernet cards or virtual Host ethernet devices
                   1411: (TAP devices).
                   1412: 
                   1413: @subsection Using TAP network interfaces
                   1414: 
                   1415: This is the standard way to connect QEMU to a real network. QEMU adds
                   1416: a virtual network device on your host (called @code{tapN}), and you
                   1417: can then configure it as if it was a real ethernet card.
1.1       root     1418: 
1.1.1.5   root     1419: @subsubsection Linux host
                   1420: 
1.1       root     1421: As an example, you can download the @file{linux-test-xxx.tar.gz}
                   1422: archive and copy the script @file{qemu-ifup} in @file{/etc} and
                   1423: configure properly @code{sudo} so that the command @code{ifconfig}
                   1424: contained in @file{qemu-ifup} can be executed as root. You must verify
1.1.1.2   root     1425: that your host kernel supports the TAP network interfaces: the
1.1       root     1426: device @file{/dev/net/tun} must be present.
                   1427: 
1.1.1.5   root     1428: See @ref{sec_invocation} to have examples of command lines using the
                   1429: TAP network interfaces.
                   1430: 
                   1431: @subsubsection Windows host
                   1432: 
                   1433: There is a virtual ethernet driver for Windows 2000/XP systems, called
                   1434: TAP-Win32. But it is not included in standard QEMU for Windows,
                   1435: so you will need to get it separately. It is part of OpenVPN package,
                   1436: so download OpenVPN from : @url{http://openvpn.net/}.
1.1       root     1437: 
                   1438: @subsection Using the user mode network stack
                   1439: 
1.1.1.2   root     1440: By using the option @option{-net user} (default configuration if no
                   1441: @option{-net} option is specified), QEMU uses a completely user mode
1.1.1.6 ! root     1442: network stack (you don't need root privilege to use the virtual
1.1.1.2   root     1443: network). The virtual network configuration is the following:
1.1       root     1444: 
                   1445: @example
                   1446: 
1.1.1.2   root     1447:          QEMU VLAN      <------>  Firewall/DHCP server <-----> Internet
                   1448:                            |          (10.0.2.2)
1.1       root     1449:                            |
                   1450:                            ---->  DNS server (10.0.2.3)
1.1.1.6 ! root     1451:                            |
1.1       root     1452:                            ---->  SMB server (10.0.2.4)
                   1453: @end example
                   1454: 
                   1455: The QEMU VM behaves as if it was behind a firewall which blocks all
                   1456: incoming connections. You can use a DHCP client to automatically
1.1.1.2   root     1457: configure the network in the QEMU VM. The DHCP server assign addresses
                   1458: to the hosts starting from 10.0.2.15.
1.1       root     1459: 
                   1460: In order to check that the user mode network is working, you can ping
                   1461: the address 10.0.2.2 and verify that you got an address in the range
                   1462: 10.0.2.x from the QEMU virtual DHCP server.
                   1463: 
                   1464: Note that @code{ping} is not supported reliably to the internet as it
1.1.1.6 ! root     1465: would require root privileges. It means you can only ping the local
1.1       root     1466: router (10.0.2.2).
                   1467: 
                   1468: When using the built-in TFTP server, the router is also the TFTP
                   1469: server.
                   1470: 
                   1471: When using the @option{-redir} option, TCP or UDP connections can be
                   1472: redirected from the host to the guest. It allows for example to
                   1473: redirect X11, telnet or SSH connections.
                   1474: 
1.1.1.2   root     1475: @subsection Connecting VLANs between QEMU instances
                   1476: 
                   1477: Using the @option{-net socket} option, it is possible to make VLANs
                   1478: that span several QEMU instances. See @ref{sec_invocation} to have a
                   1479: basic example.
                   1480: 
1.1       root     1481: @node direct_linux_boot
                   1482: @section Direct Linux Boot
                   1483: 
                   1484: This section explains how to launch a Linux kernel inside QEMU without
                   1485: having to make a full bootable image. It is very useful for fast Linux
1.1.1.5   root     1486: kernel testing.
1.1       root     1487: 
1.1.1.5   root     1488: The syntax is:
1.1       root     1489: @example
1.1.1.5   root     1490: qemu -kernel arch/i386/boot/bzImage -hda root-2.4.20.img -append "root=/dev/hda"
1.1       root     1491: @end example
                   1492: 
1.1.1.5   root     1493: Use @option{-kernel} to provide the Linux kernel image and
                   1494: @option{-append} to give the kernel command line arguments. The
                   1495: @option{-initrd} option can be used to provide an INITRD image.
1.1       root     1496: 
1.1.1.5   root     1497: When using the direct Linux boot, a disk image for the first hard disk
                   1498: @file{hda} is required because its boot sector is used to launch the
                   1499: Linux kernel.
1.1       root     1500: 
1.1.1.5   root     1501: If you do not need graphical output, you can disable it and redirect
                   1502: the virtual serial port and the QEMU monitor to the console with the
                   1503: @option{-nographic} option. The typical command line is:
1.1       root     1504: @example
1.1.1.5   root     1505: qemu -kernel arch/i386/boot/bzImage -hda root-2.4.20.img \
                   1506:      -append "root=/dev/hda console=ttyS0" -nographic
1.1       root     1507: @end example
                   1508: 
1.1.1.5   root     1509: Use @key{Ctrl-a c} to switch between the serial console and the
                   1510: monitor (@pxref{pcsys_keys}).
1.1       root     1511: 
1.1.1.3   root     1512: @node pcsys_usb
1.1.1.2   root     1513: @section USB emulation
                   1514: 
1.1.1.4   root     1515: QEMU emulates a PCI UHCI USB controller. You can virtually plug
                   1516: virtual USB devices or real host USB devices (experimental, works only
                   1517: on Linux hosts).  Qemu will automatically create and connect virtual USB hubs
1.1.1.5   root     1518: as necessary to connect multiple USB devices.
1.1.1.2   root     1519: 
1.1.1.4   root     1520: @menu
                   1521: * usb_devices::
                   1522: * host_usb_devices::
                   1523: @end menu
                   1524: @node usb_devices
                   1525: @subsection Connecting USB devices
1.1.1.2   root     1526: 
1.1.1.4   root     1527: USB devices can be connected with the @option{-usbdevice} commandline option
                   1528: or the @code{usb_add} monitor command.  Available devices are:
1.1.1.2   root     1529: 
1.1.1.4   root     1530: @table @var
                   1531: @item @code{mouse}
                   1532: Virtual Mouse.  This will override the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
                   1533: @item @code{tablet}
1.1.1.5   root     1534: Pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (like a touchscreen).
1.1.1.4   root     1535: This means qemu is able to report the mouse position without having
                   1536: to grab the mouse.  Also overrides the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
1.1.1.6 ! root     1537: @item @code{disk:@var{file}}
1.1.1.4   root     1538: Mass storage device based on @var{file} (@pxref{disk_images})
1.1.1.6 ! root     1539: @item @code{host:@var{bus.addr}}
1.1.1.4   root     1540: Pass through the host device identified by @var{bus.addr}
                   1541: (Linux only)
1.1.1.6 ! root     1542: @item @code{host:@var{vendor_id:product_id}}
1.1.1.4   root     1543: Pass through the host device identified by @var{vendor_id:product_id}
                   1544: (Linux only)
1.1.1.6 ! root     1545: @item @code{wacom-tablet}
        !          1546: Virtual Wacom PenPartner tablet.  This device is similar to the @code{tablet}
        !          1547: above but it can be used with the tslib library because in addition to touch
        !          1548: coordinates it reports touch pressure.
        !          1549: @item @code{keyboard}
        !          1550: Standard USB keyboard.  Will override the PS/2 keyboard (if present).
1.1.1.4   root     1551: @end table
1.1.1.2   root     1552: 
1.1.1.4   root     1553: @node host_usb_devices
1.1.1.2   root     1554: @subsection Using host USB devices on a Linux host
                   1555: 
                   1556: WARNING: this is an experimental feature. QEMU will slow down when
                   1557: using it. USB devices requiring real time streaming (i.e. USB Video
                   1558: Cameras) are not supported yet.
                   1559: 
                   1560: @enumerate
1.1.1.6 ! root     1561: @item If you use an early Linux 2.4 kernel, verify that no Linux driver
1.1.1.2   root     1562: is actually using the USB device. A simple way to do that is simply to
                   1563: disable the corresponding kernel module by renaming it from @file{mydriver.o}
                   1564: to @file{mydriver.o.disabled}.
                   1565: 
                   1566: @item Verify that @file{/proc/bus/usb} is working (most Linux distributions should enable it by default). You should see something like that:
                   1567: @example
                   1568: ls /proc/bus/usb
                   1569: 001  devices  drivers
                   1570: @end example
                   1571: 
                   1572: @item Since only root can access to the USB devices directly, you can either launch QEMU as root or change the permissions of the USB devices you want to use. For testing, the following suffices:
                   1573: @example
                   1574: chown -R myuid /proc/bus/usb
                   1575: @end example
                   1576: 
                   1577: @item Launch QEMU and do in the monitor:
1.1.1.6 ! root     1578: @example
1.1.1.2   root     1579: info usbhost
                   1580:   Device 1.2, speed 480 Mb/s
                   1581:     Class 00: USB device 1234:5678, USB DISK
                   1582: @end example
                   1583: You should see the list of the devices you can use (Never try to use
                   1584: hubs, it won't work).
                   1585: 
                   1586: @item Add the device in QEMU by using:
1.1.1.6 ! root     1587: @example
1.1.1.2   root     1588: usb_add host:1234:5678
                   1589: @end example
                   1590: 
                   1591: Normally the guest OS should report that a new USB device is
                   1592: plugged. You can use the option @option{-usbdevice} to do the same.
                   1593: 
                   1594: @item Now you can try to use the host USB device in QEMU.
                   1595: 
                   1596: @end enumerate
                   1597: 
                   1598: When relaunching QEMU, you may have to unplug and plug again the USB
                   1599: device to make it work again (this is a bug).
                   1600: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     1601: @node vnc_security
        !          1602: @section VNC security
        !          1603: 
        !          1604: The VNC server capability provides access to the graphical console
        !          1605: of the guest VM across the network. This has a number of security
        !          1606: considerations depending on the deployment scenarios.
        !          1607: 
        !          1608: @menu
        !          1609: * vnc_sec_none::
        !          1610: * vnc_sec_password::
        !          1611: * vnc_sec_certificate::
        !          1612: * vnc_sec_certificate_verify::
        !          1613: * vnc_sec_certificate_pw::
        !          1614: * vnc_generate_cert::
        !          1615: @end menu
        !          1616: @node vnc_sec_none
        !          1617: @subsection Without passwords
        !          1618: 
        !          1619: The simplest VNC server setup does not include any form of authentication.
        !          1620: For this setup it is recommended to restrict it to listen on a UNIX domain
        !          1621: socket only. For example
        !          1622: 
        !          1623: @example
        !          1624: qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc unix:/home/joebloggs/.qemu-myvm-vnc
        !          1625: @end example
        !          1626: 
        !          1627: This ensures that only users on local box with read/write access to that
        !          1628: path can access the VNC server. To securely access the VNC server from a
        !          1629: remote machine, a combination of netcat+ssh can be used to provide a secure
        !          1630: tunnel.
        !          1631: 
        !          1632: @node vnc_sec_password
        !          1633: @subsection With passwords
        !          1634: 
        !          1635: The VNC protocol has limited support for password based authentication. Since
        !          1636: the protocol limits passwords to 8 characters it should not be considered
        !          1637: to provide high security. The password can be fairly easily brute-forced by
        !          1638: a client making repeat connections. For this reason, a VNC server using password
        !          1639: authentication should be restricted to only listen on the loopback interface
        !          1640: or UNIX domain sockets. Password ayuthentication is requested with the @code{password}
        !          1641: option, and then once QEMU is running the password is set with the monitor. Until
        !          1642: the monitor is used to set the password all clients will be rejected.
        !          1643: 
        !          1644: @example
        !          1645: qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc :1,password -monitor stdio
        !          1646: (qemu) change vnc password
        !          1647: Password: ********
        !          1648: (qemu)
        !          1649: @end example
        !          1650: 
        !          1651: @node vnc_sec_certificate
        !          1652: @subsection With x509 certificates
        !          1653: 
        !          1654: The QEMU VNC server also implements the VeNCrypt extension allowing use of
        !          1655: TLS for encryption of the session, and x509 certificates for authentication.
        !          1656: The use of x509 certificates is strongly recommended, because TLS on its
        !          1657: own is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks. Basic x509 certificate
        !          1658: support provides a secure session, but no authentication. This allows any
        !          1659: client to connect, and provides an encrypted session.
        !          1660: 
        !          1661: @example
        !          1662: qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc :1,tls,x509=/etc/pki/qemu -monitor stdio
        !          1663: @end example
        !          1664: 
        !          1665: In the above example @code{/etc/pki/qemu} should contain at least three files,
        !          1666: @code{ca-cert.pem}, @code{server-cert.pem} and @code{server-key.pem}. Unprivileged
        !          1667: users will want to use a private directory, for example @code{$HOME/.pki/qemu}.
        !          1668: NB the @code{server-key.pem} file should be protected with file mode 0600 to
        !          1669: only be readable by the user owning it.
        !          1670: 
        !          1671: @node vnc_sec_certificate_verify
        !          1672: @subsection With x509 certificates and client verification
        !          1673: 
        !          1674: Certificates can also provide a means to authenticate the client connecting.
        !          1675: The server will request that the client provide a certificate, which it will
        !          1676: then validate against the CA certificate. This is a good choice if deploying
        !          1677: in an environment with a private internal certificate authority.
        !          1678: 
        !          1679: @example
        !          1680: qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc :1,tls,x509verify=/etc/pki/qemu -monitor stdio
        !          1681: @end example
        !          1682: 
        !          1683: 
        !          1684: @node vnc_sec_certificate_pw
        !          1685: @subsection With x509 certificates, client verification and passwords
        !          1686: 
        !          1687: Finally, the previous method can be combined with VNC password authentication
        !          1688: to provide two layers of authentication for clients.
        !          1689: 
        !          1690: @example
        !          1691: qemu [...OPTIONS...] -vnc :1,password,tls,x509verify=/etc/pki/qemu -monitor stdio
        !          1692: (qemu) change vnc password
        !          1693: Password: ********
        !          1694: (qemu)
        !          1695: @end example
        !          1696: 
        !          1697: @node vnc_generate_cert
        !          1698: @subsection Generating certificates for VNC
        !          1699: 
        !          1700: The GNU TLS packages provides a command called @code{certtool} which can
        !          1701: be used to generate certificates and keys in PEM format. At a minimum it
        !          1702: is neccessary to setup a certificate authority, and issue certificates to
        !          1703: each server. If using certificates for authentication, then each client
        !          1704: will also need to be issued a certificate. The recommendation is for the
        !          1705: server to keep its certificates in either @code{/etc/pki/qemu} or for
        !          1706: unprivileged users in @code{$HOME/.pki/qemu}.
        !          1707: 
        !          1708: @menu
        !          1709: * vnc_generate_ca::
        !          1710: * vnc_generate_server::
        !          1711: * vnc_generate_client::
        !          1712: @end menu
        !          1713: @node vnc_generate_ca
        !          1714: @subsubsection Setup the Certificate Authority
        !          1715: 
        !          1716: This step only needs to be performed once per organization / organizational
        !          1717: unit. First the CA needs a private key. This key must be kept VERY secret
        !          1718: and secure. If this key is compromised the entire trust chain of the certificates
        !          1719: issued with it is lost.
        !          1720: 
        !          1721: @example
        !          1722: # certtool --generate-privkey > ca-key.pem
        !          1723: @end example
        !          1724: 
        !          1725: A CA needs to have a public certificate. For simplicity it can be a self-signed
        !          1726: certificate, or one issue by a commercial certificate issuing authority. To
        !          1727: generate a self-signed certificate requires one core piece of information, the
        !          1728: name of the organization.
        !          1729: 
        !          1730: @example
        !          1731: # cat > ca.info <<EOF
        !          1732: cn = Name of your organization
        !          1733: ca
        !          1734: cert_signing_key
        !          1735: EOF
        !          1736: # certtool --generate-self-signed \
        !          1737:            --load-privkey ca-key.pem
        !          1738:            --template ca.info \
        !          1739:            --outfile ca-cert.pem
        !          1740: @end example
        !          1741: 
        !          1742: The @code{ca-cert.pem} file should be copied to all servers and clients wishing to utilize
        !          1743: TLS support in the VNC server. The @code{ca-key.pem} must not be disclosed/copied at all.
        !          1744: 
        !          1745: @node vnc_generate_server
        !          1746: @subsubsection Issuing server certificates
        !          1747: 
        !          1748: Each server (or host) needs to be issued with a key and certificate. When connecting
        !          1749: the certificate is sent to the client which validates it against the CA certificate.
        !          1750: The core piece of information for a server certificate is the hostname. This should
        !          1751: be the fully qualified hostname that the client will connect with, since the client
        !          1752: will typically also verify the hostname in the certificate. On the host holding the
        !          1753: secure CA private key:
        !          1754: 
        !          1755: @example
        !          1756: # cat > server.info <<EOF
        !          1757: organization = Name  of your organization
        !          1758: cn = server.foo.example.com
        !          1759: tls_www_server
        !          1760: encryption_key
        !          1761: signing_key
        !          1762: EOF
        !          1763: # certtool --generate-privkey > server-key.pem
        !          1764: # certtool --generate-certificate \
        !          1765:            --load-ca-certificate ca-cert.pem \
        !          1766:            --load-ca-privkey ca-key.pem \
        !          1767:            --load-privkey server server-key.pem \
        !          1768:            --template server.info \
        !          1769:            --outfile server-cert.pem
        !          1770: @end example
        !          1771: 
        !          1772: The @code{server-key.pem} and @code{server-cert.pem} files should now be securely copied
        !          1773: to the server for which they were generated. The @code{server-key.pem} is security
        !          1774: sensitive and should be kept protected with file mode 0600 to prevent disclosure.
        !          1775: 
        !          1776: @node vnc_generate_client
        !          1777: @subsubsection Issuing client certificates
        !          1778: 
        !          1779: If the QEMU VNC server is to use the @code{x509verify} option to validate client
        !          1780: certificates as its authentication mechanism, each client also needs to be issued
        !          1781: a certificate. The client certificate contains enough metadata to uniquely identify
        !          1782: the client, typically organization, state, city, building, etc. On the host holding
        !          1783: the secure CA private key:
        !          1784: 
        !          1785: @example
        !          1786: # cat > client.info <<EOF
        !          1787: country = GB
        !          1788: state = London
        !          1789: locality = London
        !          1790: organiazation = Name of your organization
        !          1791: cn = client.foo.example.com
        !          1792: tls_www_client
        !          1793: encryption_key
        !          1794: signing_key
        !          1795: EOF
        !          1796: # certtool --generate-privkey > client-key.pem
        !          1797: # certtool --generate-certificate \
        !          1798:            --load-ca-certificate ca-cert.pem \
        !          1799:            --load-ca-privkey ca-key.pem \
        !          1800:            --load-privkey client-key.pem \
        !          1801:            --template client.info \
        !          1802:            --outfile client-cert.pem
        !          1803: @end example
        !          1804: 
        !          1805: The @code{client-key.pem} and @code{client-cert.pem} files should now be securely
        !          1806: copied to the client for which they were generated.
        !          1807: 
1.1       root     1808: @node gdb_usage
                   1809: @section GDB usage
                   1810: 
                   1811: QEMU has a primitive support to work with gdb, so that you can do
                   1812: 'Ctrl-C' while the virtual machine is running and inspect its state.
                   1813: 
                   1814: In order to use gdb, launch qemu with the '-s' option. It will wait for a
                   1815: gdb connection:
                   1816: @example
1.1.1.3   root     1817: > qemu -s -kernel arch/i386/boot/bzImage -hda root-2.4.20.img \
                   1818:        -append "root=/dev/hda"
1.1       root     1819: Connected to host network interface: tun0
                   1820: Waiting gdb connection on port 1234
                   1821: @end example
                   1822: 
                   1823: Then launch gdb on the 'vmlinux' executable:
                   1824: @example
                   1825: > gdb vmlinux
                   1826: @end example
                   1827: 
                   1828: In gdb, connect to QEMU:
                   1829: @example
                   1830: (gdb) target remote localhost:1234
                   1831: @end example
                   1832: 
                   1833: Then you can use gdb normally. For example, type 'c' to launch the kernel:
                   1834: @example
                   1835: (gdb) c
                   1836: @end example
                   1837: 
                   1838: Here are some useful tips in order to use gdb on system code:
                   1839: 
                   1840: @enumerate
                   1841: @item
                   1842: Use @code{info reg} to display all the CPU registers.
                   1843: @item
                   1844: Use @code{x/10i $eip} to display the code at the PC position.
                   1845: @item
                   1846: Use @code{set architecture i8086} to dump 16 bit code. Then use
1.1.1.4   root     1847: @code{x/10i $cs*16+$eip} to dump the code at the PC position.
1.1       root     1848: @end enumerate
                   1849: 
1.1.1.3   root     1850: @node pcsys_os_specific
1.1       root     1851: @section Target OS specific information
                   1852: 
                   1853: @subsection Linux
                   1854: 
                   1855: To have access to SVGA graphic modes under X11, use the @code{vesa} or
                   1856: the @code{cirrus} X11 driver. For optimal performances, use 16 bit
                   1857: color depth in the guest and the host OS.
                   1858: 
                   1859: When using a 2.6 guest Linux kernel, you should add the option
                   1860: @code{clock=pit} on the kernel command line because the 2.6 Linux
                   1861: kernels make very strict real time clock checks by default that QEMU
                   1862: cannot simulate exactly.
                   1863: 
                   1864: When using a 2.6 guest Linux kernel, verify that the 4G/4G patch is
                   1865: not activated because QEMU is slower with this patch. The QEMU
                   1866: Accelerator Module is also much slower in this case. Earlier Fedora
1.1.1.6 ! root     1867: Core 3 Linux kernel (< 2.6.9-1.724_FC3) were known to incorporate this
1.1       root     1868: patch by default. Newer kernels don't have it.
                   1869: 
                   1870: @subsection Windows
                   1871: 
                   1872: If you have a slow host, using Windows 95 is better as it gives the
                   1873: best speed. Windows 2000 is also a good choice.
                   1874: 
                   1875: @subsubsection SVGA graphic modes support
                   1876: 
                   1877: QEMU emulates a Cirrus Logic GD5446 Video
                   1878: card. All Windows versions starting from Windows 95 should recognize
                   1879: and use this graphic card. For optimal performances, use 16 bit color
                   1880: depth in the guest and the host OS.
                   1881: 
1.1.1.4   root     1882: If you are using Windows XP as guest OS and if you want to use high
                   1883: resolution modes which the Cirrus Logic BIOS does not support (i.e. >=
                   1884: 1280x1024x16), then you should use the VESA VBE virtual graphic card
                   1885: (option @option{-std-vga}).
                   1886: 
1.1       root     1887: @subsubsection CPU usage reduction
                   1888: 
                   1889: Windows 9x does not correctly use the CPU HLT
                   1890: instruction. The result is that it takes host CPU cycles even when
                   1891: idle. You can install the utility from
                   1892: @url{http://www.user.cityline.ru/~maxamn/amnhltm.zip} to solve this
                   1893: problem. Note that no such tool is needed for NT, 2000 or XP.
                   1894: 
                   1895: @subsubsection Windows 2000 disk full problem
                   1896: 
                   1897: Windows 2000 has a bug which gives a disk full problem during its
                   1898: installation. When installing it, use the @option{-win2k-hack} QEMU
                   1899: option to enable a specific workaround. After Windows 2000 is
                   1900: installed, you no longer need this option (this option slows down the
                   1901: IDE transfers).
                   1902: 
                   1903: @subsubsection Windows 2000 shutdown
                   1904: 
                   1905: Windows 2000 cannot automatically shutdown in QEMU although Windows 98
                   1906: can. It comes from the fact that Windows 2000 does not automatically
                   1907: use the APM driver provided by the BIOS.
                   1908: 
                   1909: In order to correct that, do the following (thanks to Struan
                   1910: Bartlett): go to the Control Panel => Add/Remove Hardware & Next =>
                   1911: Add/Troubleshoot a device => Add a new device & Next => No, select the
                   1912: hardware from a list & Next => NT Apm/Legacy Support & Next => Next
                   1913: (again) a few times. Now the driver is installed and Windows 2000 now
1.1.1.6 ! root     1914: correctly instructs QEMU to shutdown at the appropriate moment.
1.1       root     1915: 
                   1916: @subsubsection Share a directory between Unix and Windows
                   1917: 
                   1918: See @ref{sec_invocation} about the help of the option @option{-smb}.
                   1919: 
1.1.1.5   root     1920: @subsubsection Windows XP security problem
1.1       root     1921: 
                   1922: Some releases of Windows XP install correctly but give a security
                   1923: error when booting:
                   1924: @example
                   1925: A problem is preventing Windows from accurately checking the
                   1926: license for this computer. Error code: 0x800703e6.
                   1927: @end example
                   1928: 
1.1.1.5   root     1929: The workaround is to install a service pack for XP after a boot in safe
                   1930: mode. Then reboot, and the problem should go away. Since there is no
                   1931: network while in safe mode, its recommended to download the full
                   1932: installation of SP1 or SP2 and transfer that via an ISO or using the
                   1933: vvfat block device ("-hdb fat:directory_which_holds_the_SP").
1.1       root     1934: 
                   1935: @subsection MS-DOS and FreeDOS
                   1936: 
                   1937: @subsubsection CPU usage reduction
                   1938: 
                   1939: DOS does not correctly use the CPU HLT instruction. The result is that
                   1940: it takes host CPU cycles even when idle. You can install the utility
                   1941: from @url{http://www.vmware.com/software/dosidle210.zip} to solve this
                   1942: problem.
                   1943: 
1.1.1.3   root     1944: @node QEMU System emulator for non PC targets
1.1.1.2   root     1945: @chapter QEMU System emulator for non PC targets
                   1946: 
                   1947: QEMU is a generic emulator and it emulates many non PC
                   1948: machines. Most of the options are similar to the PC emulator. The
1.1.1.6 ! root     1949: differences are mentioned in the following sections.
1.1.1.2   root     1950: 
1.1.1.3   root     1951: @menu
                   1952: * QEMU PowerPC System emulator::
1.1.1.6 ! root     1953: * Sparc32 System emulator::
        !          1954: * Sparc64 System emulator::
        !          1955: * MIPS System emulator::
        !          1956: * ARM System emulator::
        !          1957: * ColdFire System emulator::
1.1.1.3   root     1958: @end menu
                   1959: 
                   1960: @node QEMU PowerPC System emulator
1.1.1.2   root     1961: @section QEMU PowerPC System emulator
1.1       root     1962: 
                   1963: Use the executable @file{qemu-system-ppc} to simulate a complete PREP
                   1964: or PowerMac PowerPC system.
                   1965: 
                   1966: QEMU emulates the following PowerMac peripherals:
                   1967: 
                   1968: @itemize @minus
1.1.1.6 ! root     1969: @item
        !          1970: UniNorth PCI Bridge
1.1       root     1971: @item
                   1972: PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
1.1.1.6 ! root     1973: @item
1.1       root     1974: 2 PMAC IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
1.1.1.6 ! root     1975: @item
1.1       root     1976: NE2000 PCI adapters
                   1977: @item
                   1978: Non Volatile RAM
                   1979: @item
                   1980: VIA-CUDA with ADB keyboard and mouse.
                   1981: @end itemize
                   1982: 
                   1983: QEMU emulates the following PREP peripherals:
                   1984: 
                   1985: @itemize @minus
1.1.1.6 ! root     1986: @item
1.1       root     1987: PCI Bridge
                   1988: @item
                   1989: PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
1.1.1.6 ! root     1990: @item
1.1       root     1991: 2 IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
                   1992: @item
                   1993: Floppy disk
1.1.1.6 ! root     1994: @item
1.1       root     1995: NE2000 network adapters
                   1996: @item
                   1997: Serial port
                   1998: @item
                   1999: PREP Non Volatile RAM
                   2000: @item
                   2001: PC compatible keyboard and mouse.
                   2002: @end itemize
                   2003: 
                   2004: QEMU uses the Open Hack'Ware Open Firmware Compatible BIOS available at
1.1.1.2   root     2005: @url{http://perso.magic.fr/l_indien/OpenHackWare/index.htm}.
1.1       root     2006: 
                   2007: @c man begin OPTIONS
                   2008: 
                   2009: The following options are specific to the PowerPC emulation:
                   2010: 
                   2011: @table @option
                   2012: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2013: @item -g WxH[xDEPTH]
1.1       root     2014: 
                   2015: Set the initial VGA graphic mode. The default is 800x600x15.
                   2016: 
                   2017: @end table
                   2018: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2019: @c man end
1.1       root     2020: 
                   2021: 
                   2022: More information is available at
1.1.1.2   root     2023: @url{http://perso.magic.fr/l_indien/qemu-ppc/}.
1.1       root     2024: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2025: @node Sparc32 System emulator
        !          2026: @section Sparc32 System emulator
1.1       root     2027: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2028: Use the executable @file{qemu-system-sparc} to simulate a SPARCstation
        !          2029: 5, SPARCstation 10, SPARCstation 20, SPARCserver 600MP (sun4m
        !          2030: architecture), SPARCstation 2 (sun4c architecture), SPARCserver 1000,
        !          2031: or SPARCcenter 2000 (sun4d architecture). The emulation is somewhat
        !          2032: complete.  SMP up to 16 CPUs is supported, but Linux limits the number
        !          2033: of usable CPUs to 4.
1.1       root     2034: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2035: QEMU emulates the following sun4m/sun4d peripherals:
1.1       root     2036: 
                   2037: @itemize @minus
                   2038: @item
1.1.1.6 ! root     2039: IOMMU or IO-UNITs
1.1       root     2040: @item
                   2041: TCX Frame buffer
1.1.1.6 ! root     2042: @item
1.1       root     2043: Lance (Am7990) Ethernet
                   2044: @item
                   2045: Non Volatile RAM M48T08
                   2046: @item
                   2047: Slave I/O: timers, interrupt controllers, Zilog serial ports, keyboard
                   2048: and power/reset logic
                   2049: @item
                   2050: ESP SCSI controller with hard disk and CD-ROM support
                   2051: @item
1.1.1.6 ! root     2052: Floppy drive (not on SS-600MP)
        !          2053: @item
        !          2054: CS4231 sound device (only on SS-5, not working yet)
1.1       root     2055: @end itemize
                   2056: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2057: The number of peripherals is fixed in the architecture.  Maximum
        !          2058: memory size depends on the machine type, for SS-5 it is 256MB and for
        !          2059: others 2047MB.
1.1       root     2060: 
1.1.1.4   root     2061: Since version 0.8.2, QEMU uses OpenBIOS
                   2062: @url{http://www.openbios.org/}. OpenBIOS is a free (GPL v2) portable
                   2063: firmware implementation. The goal is to implement a 100% IEEE
                   2064: 1275-1994 (referred to as Open Firmware) compliant firmware.
1.1       root     2065: 
                   2066: A sample Linux 2.6 series kernel and ram disk image are available on
1.1.1.4   root     2067: the QEMU web site. Please note that currently NetBSD, OpenBSD or
                   2068: Solaris kernels don't work.
1.1       root     2069: 
                   2070: @c man begin OPTIONS
                   2071: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2072: The following options are specific to the Sparc32 emulation:
1.1       root     2073: 
                   2074: @table @option
                   2075: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2076: @item -g WxHx[xDEPTH]
        !          2077: 
        !          2078: Set the initial TCX graphic mode. The default is 1024x768x8, currently
        !          2079: the only other possible mode is 1024x768x24.
        !          2080: 
        !          2081: @item -prom-env string
1.1       root     2082: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2083: Set OpenBIOS variables in NVRAM, for example:
        !          2084: 
        !          2085: @example
        !          2086: qemu-system-sparc -prom-env 'auto-boot?=false' \
        !          2087:  -prom-env 'boot-device=sd(0,2,0):d' -prom-env 'boot-args=linux single'
        !          2088: @end example
        !          2089: 
        !          2090: @item -M [SS-5|SS-10|SS-20|SS-600MP|SS-2|SS-1000|SS-2000]
        !          2091: 
        !          2092: Set the emulated machine type. Default is SS-5.
1.1       root     2093: 
                   2094: @end table
                   2095: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2096: @c man end
1.1       root     2097: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2098: @node Sparc64 System emulator
        !          2099: @section Sparc64 System emulator
1.1       root     2100: 
                   2101: Use the executable @file{qemu-system-sparc64} to simulate a Sun4u machine.
                   2102: The emulator is not usable for anything yet.
                   2103: 
                   2104: QEMU emulates the following sun4u peripherals:
                   2105: 
                   2106: @itemize @minus
                   2107: @item
1.1.1.6 ! root     2108: UltraSparc IIi APB PCI Bridge
1.1       root     2109: @item
                   2110: PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
                   2111: @item
                   2112: Non Volatile RAM M48T59
                   2113: @item
                   2114: PC-compatible serial ports
                   2115: @end itemize
                   2116: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2117: @node MIPS System emulator
        !          2118: @section MIPS System emulator
        !          2119: 
        !          2120: Four executables cover simulation of 32 and 64-bit MIPS systems in
        !          2121: both endian options, @file{qemu-system-mips}, @file{qemu-system-mipsel}
        !          2122: @file{qemu-system-mips64} and @file{qemu-system-mips64el}.
        !          2123: Four different machine types are emulated:
        !          2124: 
        !          2125: @itemize @minus
        !          2126: @item
        !          2127: A generic ISA PC-like machine "mips"
        !          2128: @item
        !          2129: The MIPS Malta prototype board "malta"
        !          2130: @item
        !          2131: An ACER Pica "pica61". This machine needs the 64-bit emulator.
        !          2132: @item
        !          2133: MIPS emulator pseudo board "mipssim"
        !          2134: @end itemize
1.1       root     2135: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2136: The generic emulation is supported by Debian 'Etch' and is able to
        !          2137: install Debian into a virtual disk image. The following devices are
        !          2138: emulated:
1.1.1.2   root     2139: 
                   2140: @itemize @minus
1.1.1.6 ! root     2141: @item
        !          2142: A range of MIPS CPUs, default is the 24Kf
1.1.1.2   root     2143: @item
                   2144: PC style serial port
                   2145: @item
1.1.1.6 ! root     2146: PC style IDE disk
        !          2147: @item
1.1.1.2   root     2148: NE2000 network card
                   2149: @end itemize
                   2150: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2151: The Malta emulation supports the following devices:
        !          2152: 
        !          2153: @itemize @minus
        !          2154: @item
        !          2155: Core board with MIPS 24Kf CPU and Galileo system controller
        !          2156: @item
        !          2157: PIIX4 PCI/USB/SMbus controller
        !          2158: @item
        !          2159: The Multi-I/O chip's serial device
        !          2160: @item
        !          2161: PCnet32 PCI network card
        !          2162: @item
        !          2163: Malta FPGA serial device
        !          2164: @item
        !          2165: Cirrus VGA graphics card
        !          2166: @end itemize
        !          2167: 
        !          2168: The ACER Pica emulation supports:
        !          2169: 
        !          2170: @itemize @minus
        !          2171: @item
        !          2172: MIPS R4000 CPU
        !          2173: @item
        !          2174: PC-style IRQ and DMA controllers
        !          2175: @item
        !          2176: PC Keyboard
        !          2177: @item
        !          2178: IDE controller
        !          2179: @end itemize
1.1.1.2   root     2180: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2181: The mipssim pseudo board emulation provides an environment similiar
        !          2182: to what the proprietary MIPS emulator uses for running Linux.
        !          2183: It supports:
        !          2184: 
        !          2185: @itemize @minus
        !          2186: @item
        !          2187: A range of MIPS CPUs, default is the 24Kf
        !          2188: @item
        !          2189: PC style serial port
        !          2190: @item
        !          2191: MIPSnet network emulation
        !          2192: @end itemize
        !          2193: 
        !          2194: @node ARM System emulator
        !          2195: @section ARM System emulator
1.1.1.2   root     2196: 
                   2197: Use the executable @file{qemu-system-arm} to simulate a ARM
                   2198: machine. The ARM Integrator/CP board is emulated with the following
                   2199: devices:
                   2200: 
                   2201: @itemize @minus
                   2202: @item
1.1.1.6 ! root     2203: ARM926E, ARM1026E, ARM946E, ARM1136 or Cortex-A8 CPU
1.1.1.2   root     2204: @item
                   2205: Two PL011 UARTs
1.1.1.6 ! root     2206: @item
1.1.1.2   root     2207: SMC 91c111 Ethernet adapter
1.1.1.4   root     2208: @item
                   2209: PL110 LCD controller
                   2210: @item
                   2211: PL050 KMI with PS/2 keyboard and mouse.
1.1.1.6 ! root     2212: @item
        !          2213: PL181 MultiMedia Card Interface with SD card.
1.1.1.4   root     2214: @end itemize
                   2215: 
                   2216: The ARM Versatile baseboard is emulated with the following devices:
                   2217: 
                   2218: @itemize @minus
                   2219: @item
1.1.1.6 ! root     2220: ARM926E, ARM1136 or Cortex-A8 CPU
1.1.1.4   root     2221: @item
                   2222: PL190 Vectored Interrupt Controller
                   2223: @item
                   2224: Four PL011 UARTs
1.1.1.6 ! root     2225: @item
1.1.1.4   root     2226: SMC 91c111 Ethernet adapter
                   2227: @item
                   2228: PL110 LCD controller
                   2229: @item
                   2230: PL050 KMI with PS/2 keyboard and mouse.
                   2231: @item
                   2232: PCI host bridge.  Note the emulated PCI bridge only provides access to
                   2233: PCI memory space.  It does not provide access to PCI IO space.
1.1.1.6 ! root     2234: This means some devices (eg. ne2k_pci NIC) are not usable, and others
        !          2235: (eg. rtl8139 NIC) are only usable when the guest drivers use the memory
1.1.1.4   root     2236: mapped control registers.
                   2237: @item
                   2238: PCI OHCI USB controller.
                   2239: @item
                   2240: LSI53C895A PCI SCSI Host Bus Adapter with hard disk and CD-ROM devices.
1.1.1.6 ! root     2241: @item
        !          2242: PL181 MultiMedia Card Interface with SD card.
        !          2243: @end itemize
        !          2244: 
        !          2245: The ARM RealView Emulation baseboard is emulated with the following devices:
        !          2246: 
        !          2247: @itemize @minus
        !          2248: @item
        !          2249: ARM926E, ARM1136, ARM11MPCORE(x4) or Cortex-A8 CPU
        !          2250: @item
        !          2251: ARM AMBA Generic/Distributed Interrupt Controller
        !          2252: @item
        !          2253: Four PL011 UARTs
        !          2254: @item
        !          2255: SMC 91c111 Ethernet adapter
        !          2256: @item
        !          2257: PL110 LCD controller
        !          2258: @item
        !          2259: PL050 KMI with PS/2 keyboard and mouse
        !          2260: @item
        !          2261: PCI host bridge
        !          2262: @item
        !          2263: PCI OHCI USB controller
        !          2264: @item
        !          2265: LSI53C895A PCI SCSI Host Bus Adapter with hard disk and CD-ROM devices
        !          2266: @item
        !          2267: PL181 MultiMedia Card Interface with SD card.
        !          2268: @end itemize
        !          2269: 
        !          2270: The XScale-based clamshell PDA models ("Spitz", "Akita", "Borzoi"
        !          2271: and "Terrier") emulation includes the following peripherals:
        !          2272: 
        !          2273: @itemize @minus
        !          2274: @item
        !          2275: Intel PXA270 System-on-chip (ARM V5TE core)
        !          2276: @item
        !          2277: NAND Flash memory
        !          2278: @item
        !          2279: IBM/Hitachi DSCM microdrive in a PXA PCMCIA slot - not in "Akita"
        !          2280: @item
        !          2281: On-chip OHCI USB controller
        !          2282: @item
        !          2283: On-chip LCD controller
        !          2284: @item
        !          2285: On-chip Real Time Clock
        !          2286: @item
        !          2287: TI ADS7846 touchscreen controller on SSP bus
        !          2288: @item
        !          2289: Maxim MAX1111 analog-digital converter on I@math{^2}C bus
        !          2290: @item
        !          2291: GPIO-connected keyboard controller and LEDs
        !          2292: @item
        !          2293: Secure Digital card connected to PXA MMC/SD host
        !          2294: @item
        !          2295: Three on-chip UARTs
        !          2296: @item
        !          2297: WM8750 audio CODEC on I@math{^2}C and I@math{^2}S busses
        !          2298: @end itemize
        !          2299: 
        !          2300: The Palm Tungsten|E PDA (codename "Cheetah") emulation includes the
        !          2301: following elements:
        !          2302: 
        !          2303: @itemize @minus
        !          2304: @item
        !          2305: Texas Instruments OMAP310 System-on-chip (ARM 925T core)
        !          2306: @item
        !          2307: ROM and RAM memories (ROM firmware image can be loaded with -option-rom)
        !          2308: @item
        !          2309: On-chip LCD controller
        !          2310: @item
        !          2311: On-chip Real Time Clock
        !          2312: @item
        !          2313: TI TSC2102i touchscreen controller / analog-digital converter / Audio
        !          2314: CODEC, connected through MicroWire and I@math{^2}S busses
        !          2315: @item
        !          2316: GPIO-connected matrix keypad
        !          2317: @item
        !          2318: Secure Digital card connected to OMAP MMC/SD host
        !          2319: @item
        !          2320: Three on-chip UARTs
        !          2321: @end itemize
        !          2322: 
        !          2323: The Luminary Micro Stellaris LM3S811EVB emulation includes the following
        !          2324: devices:
        !          2325: 
        !          2326: @itemize @minus
        !          2327: @item
        !          2328: Cortex-M3 CPU core.
        !          2329: @item
        !          2330: 64k Flash and 8k SRAM.
        !          2331: @item
        !          2332: Timers, UARTs, ADC and I@math{^2}C interface.
        !          2333: @item
        !          2334: OSRAM Pictiva 96x16 OLED with SSD0303 controller on I@math{^2}C bus.
        !          2335: @end itemize
        !          2336: 
        !          2337: The Luminary Micro Stellaris LM3S6965EVB emulation includes the following
        !          2338: devices:
        !          2339: 
        !          2340: @itemize @minus
        !          2341: @item
        !          2342: Cortex-M3 CPU core.
        !          2343: @item
        !          2344: 256k Flash and 64k SRAM.
        !          2345: @item
        !          2346: Timers, UARTs, ADC, I@math{^2}C and SSI interfaces.
        !          2347: @item
        !          2348: OSRAM Pictiva 128x64 OLED with SSD0323 controller connected via SSI.
1.1.1.2   root     2349: @end itemize
                   2350: 
                   2351: A Linux 2.6 test image is available on the QEMU web site. More
                   2352: information is available in the QEMU mailing-list archive.
1.1       root     2353: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2354: @node ColdFire System emulator
        !          2355: @section ColdFire System emulator
        !          2356: 
        !          2357: Use the executable @file{qemu-system-m68k} to simulate a ColdFire machine.
        !          2358: The emulator is able to boot a uClinux kernel.
        !          2359: 
        !          2360: The M5208EVB emulation includes the following devices:
        !          2361: 
        !          2362: @itemize @minus
        !          2363: @item
        !          2364: MCF5208 ColdFire V2 Microprocessor (ISA A+ with EMAC).
        !          2365: @item
        !          2366: Three Two on-chip UARTs.
        !          2367: @item
        !          2368: Fast Ethernet Controller (FEC)
        !          2369: @end itemize
        !          2370: 
        !          2371: The AN5206 emulation includes the following devices:
        !          2372: 
        !          2373: @itemize @minus
        !          2374: @item
        !          2375: MCF5206 ColdFire V2 Microprocessor.
        !          2376: @item
        !          2377: Two on-chip UARTs.
        !          2378: @end itemize
        !          2379: 
        !          2380: @node QEMU User space emulator
        !          2381: @chapter QEMU User space emulator
1.1.1.5   root     2382: 
                   2383: @menu
                   2384: * Supported Operating Systems ::
                   2385: * Linux User space emulator::
                   2386: * Mac OS X/Darwin User space emulator ::
                   2387: @end menu
                   2388: 
                   2389: @node Supported Operating Systems
                   2390: @section Supported Operating Systems
                   2391: 
                   2392: The following OS are supported in user space emulation:
                   2393: 
                   2394: @itemize @minus
                   2395: @item
1.1.1.6 ! root     2396: Linux (referred as qemu-linux-user)
1.1.1.5   root     2397: @item
1.1.1.6 ! root     2398: Mac OS X/Darwin (referred as qemu-darwin-user)
1.1.1.5   root     2399: @end itemize
                   2400: 
                   2401: @node Linux User space emulator
                   2402: @section Linux User space emulator
1.1       root     2403: 
1.1.1.3   root     2404: @menu
                   2405: * Quick Start::
                   2406: * Wine launch::
                   2407: * Command line options::
1.1.1.4   root     2408: * Other binaries::
1.1.1.3   root     2409: @end menu
                   2410: 
                   2411: @node Quick Start
1.1.1.5   root     2412: @subsection Quick Start
1.1       root     2413: 
                   2414: In order to launch a Linux process, QEMU needs the process executable
1.1.1.6 ! root     2415: itself and all the target (x86) dynamic libraries used by it.
1.1       root     2416: 
                   2417: @itemize
                   2418: 
                   2419: @item On x86, you can just try to launch any process by using the native
                   2420: libraries:
                   2421: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2422: @example
1.1       root     2423: qemu-i386 -L / /bin/ls
                   2424: @end example
                   2425: 
                   2426: @code{-L /} tells that the x86 dynamic linker must be searched with a
                   2427: @file{/} prefix.
                   2428: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2429: @item Since QEMU is also a linux process, you can launch qemu with
        !          2430: qemu (NOTE: you can only do that if you compiled QEMU from the sources):
1.1       root     2431: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2432: @example
1.1       root     2433: qemu-i386 -L / qemu-i386 -L / /bin/ls
                   2434: @end example
                   2435: 
                   2436: @item On non x86 CPUs, you need first to download at least an x86 glibc
                   2437: (@file{qemu-runtime-i386-XXX-.tar.gz} on the QEMU web page). Ensure that
                   2438: @code{LD_LIBRARY_PATH} is not set:
                   2439: 
                   2440: @example
1.1.1.6 ! root     2441: unset LD_LIBRARY_PATH
1.1       root     2442: @end example
                   2443: 
                   2444: Then you can launch the precompiled @file{ls} x86 executable:
                   2445: 
                   2446: @example
                   2447: qemu-i386 tests/i386/ls
                   2448: @end example
                   2449: You can look at @file{qemu-binfmt-conf.sh} so that
                   2450: QEMU is automatically launched by the Linux kernel when you try to
                   2451: launch x86 executables. It requires the @code{binfmt_misc} module in the
                   2452: Linux kernel.
                   2453: 
                   2454: @item The x86 version of QEMU is also included. You can try weird things such as:
                   2455: @example
1.1.1.3   root     2456: qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/qemu-i386 \
                   2457:           /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
1.1       root     2458: @end example
                   2459: 
                   2460: @end itemize
                   2461: 
1.1.1.3   root     2462: @node Wine launch
1.1.1.5   root     2463: @subsection Wine launch
1.1       root     2464: 
                   2465: @itemize
                   2466: 
                   2467: @item Ensure that you have a working QEMU with the x86 glibc
                   2468: distribution (see previous section). In order to verify it, you must be
                   2469: able to do:
                   2470: 
                   2471: @example
                   2472: qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
                   2473: @end example
                   2474: 
                   2475: @item Download the binary x86 Wine install
1.1.1.6 ! root     2476: (@file{qemu-XXX-i386-wine.tar.gz} on the QEMU web page).
1.1       root     2477: 
                   2478: @item Configure Wine on your account. Look at the provided script
1.1.1.3   root     2479: @file{/usr/local/qemu-i386/@/bin/wine-conf.sh}. Your previous
1.1       root     2480: @code{$@{HOME@}/.wine} directory is saved to @code{$@{HOME@}/.wine.org}.
                   2481: 
                   2482: @item Then you can try the example @file{putty.exe}:
                   2483: 
                   2484: @example
1.1.1.3   root     2485: qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/bin/wine \
                   2486:           /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/c/Program\ Files/putty.exe
1.1       root     2487: @end example
                   2488: 
                   2489: @end itemize
                   2490: 
1.1.1.3   root     2491: @node Command line options
1.1.1.5   root     2492: @subsection Command line options
1.1       root     2493: 
                   2494: @example
                   2495: usage: qemu-i386 [-h] [-d] [-L path] [-s size] program [arguments...]
                   2496: @end example
                   2497: 
                   2498: @table @option
                   2499: @item -h
                   2500: Print the help
1.1.1.6 ! root     2501: @item -L path
1.1       root     2502: Set the x86 elf interpreter prefix (default=/usr/local/qemu-i386)
                   2503: @item -s size
                   2504: Set the x86 stack size in bytes (default=524288)
                   2505: @end table
                   2506: 
                   2507: Debug options:
                   2508: 
                   2509: @table @option
                   2510: @item -d
                   2511: Activate log (logfile=/tmp/qemu.log)
                   2512: @item -p pagesize
                   2513: Act as if the host page size was 'pagesize' bytes
                   2514: @end table
                   2515: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2516: Environment variables:
        !          2517: 
        !          2518: @table @env
        !          2519: @item QEMU_STRACE
        !          2520: Print system calls and arguments similar to the 'strace' program
        !          2521: (NOTE: the actual 'strace' program will not work because the user
        !          2522: space emulator hasn't implemented ptrace).  At the moment this is
        !          2523: incomplete.  All system calls that don't have a specific argument
        !          2524: format are printed with information for six arguments.  Many
        !          2525: flag-style arguments don't have decoders and will show up as numbers.
        !          2526: @end table
        !          2527: 
1.1.1.4   root     2528: @node Other binaries
1.1.1.5   root     2529: @subsection Other binaries
1.1.1.4   root     2530: 
                   2531: @command{qemu-arm} is also capable of running ARM "Angel" semihosted ELF
                   2532: binaries (as implemented by the arm-elf and arm-eabi Newlib/GDB
                   2533: configurations), and arm-uclinux bFLT format binaries.
                   2534: 
1.1.1.5   root     2535: @command{qemu-m68k} is capable of running semihosted binaries using the BDM
                   2536: (m5xxx-ram-hosted.ld) or m68k-sim (sim.ld) syscall interfaces, and
                   2537: coldfire uClinux bFLT format binaries.
                   2538: 
1.1.1.4   root     2539: The binary format is detected automatically.
                   2540: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2541: @command{qemu-sparc32plus} can execute Sparc32 and SPARC32PLUS binaries
        !          2542: (Sparc64 CPU, 32 bit ABI).
        !          2543: 
        !          2544: @command{qemu-sparc64} can execute some Sparc64 (Sparc64 CPU, 64 bit ABI) and
        !          2545: SPARC32PLUS binaries (Sparc64 CPU, 32 bit ABI).
        !          2546: 
1.1.1.5   root     2547: @node Mac OS X/Darwin User space emulator
                   2548: @section Mac OS X/Darwin User space emulator
                   2549: 
                   2550: @menu
                   2551: * Mac OS X/Darwin Status::
                   2552: * Mac OS X/Darwin Quick Start::
                   2553: * Mac OS X/Darwin Command line options::
                   2554: @end menu
                   2555: 
                   2556: @node Mac OS X/Darwin Status
                   2557: @subsection Mac OS X/Darwin Status
                   2558: 
                   2559: @itemize @minus
                   2560: @item
                   2561: target x86 on x86: Most apps (Cocoa and Carbon too) works. [1]
                   2562: @item
                   2563: target PowerPC on x86: Not working as the ppc commpage can't be mapped (yet!)
                   2564: @item
1.1.1.6 ! root     2565: target PowerPC on PowerPC: Most apps (Cocoa and Carbon too) works. [1]
1.1.1.5   root     2566: @item
                   2567: target x86 on PowerPC: most utilities work. Cocoa and Carbon apps are not yet supported.
                   2568: @end itemize
                   2569: 
                   2570: [1] If you're host commpage can be executed by qemu.
                   2571: 
                   2572: @node Mac OS X/Darwin Quick Start
                   2573: @subsection Quick Start
                   2574: 
                   2575: In order to launch a Mac OS X/Darwin process, QEMU needs the process executable
                   2576: itself and all the target dynamic libraries used by it. If you don't have the FAT
                   2577: libraries (you're running Mac OS X/ppc) you'll need to obtain it from a Mac OS X
                   2578: CD or compile them by hand.
                   2579: 
                   2580: @itemize
                   2581: 
                   2582: @item On x86, you can just try to launch any process by using the native
                   2583: libraries:
                   2584: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2585: @example
        !          2586: qemu-i386 /bin/ls
1.1.1.5   root     2587: @end example
                   2588: 
                   2589: or to run the ppc version of the executable:
                   2590: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2591: @example
        !          2592: qemu-ppc /bin/ls
1.1.1.5   root     2593: @end example
                   2594: 
                   2595: @item On ppc, you'll have to tell qemu where your x86 libraries (and dynamic linker)
                   2596: are installed:
                   2597: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2598: @example
        !          2599: qemu-i386 -L /opt/x86_root/ /bin/ls
1.1.1.5   root     2600: @end example
                   2601: 
                   2602: @code{-L /opt/x86_root/} tells that the dynamic linker (dyld) path is in
                   2603: @file{/opt/x86_root/usr/bin/dyld}.
                   2604: 
                   2605: @end itemize
                   2606: 
                   2607: @node Mac OS X/Darwin Command line options
                   2608: @subsection Command line options
                   2609: 
                   2610: @example
1.1.1.6 ! root     2611: usage: qemu-i386 [-h] [-d] [-L path] [-s size] program [arguments...]
1.1.1.5   root     2612: @end example
                   2613: 
                   2614: @table @option
                   2615: @item -h
                   2616: Print the help
1.1.1.6 ! root     2617: @item -L path
1.1.1.5   root     2618: Set the library root path (default=/)
                   2619: @item -s size
                   2620: Set the stack size in bytes (default=524288)
                   2621: @end table
                   2622: 
                   2623: Debug options:
                   2624: 
                   2625: @table @option
                   2626: @item -d
                   2627: Activate log (logfile=/tmp/qemu.log)
                   2628: @item -p pagesize
                   2629: Act as if the host page size was 'pagesize' bytes
                   2630: @end table
                   2631: 
1.1       root     2632: @node compilation
                   2633: @chapter Compilation from the sources
                   2634: 
1.1.1.3   root     2635: @menu
                   2636: * Linux/Unix::
                   2637: * Windows::
                   2638: * Cross compilation for Windows with Linux::
                   2639: * Mac OS X::
                   2640: @end menu
                   2641: 
                   2642: @node Linux/Unix
1.1       root     2643: @section Linux/Unix
                   2644: 
                   2645: @subsection Compilation
                   2646: 
                   2647: First you must decompress the sources:
                   2648: @example
                   2649: cd /tmp
                   2650: tar zxvf qemu-x.y.z.tar.gz
                   2651: cd qemu-x.y.z
                   2652: @end example
                   2653: 
                   2654: Then you configure QEMU and build it (usually no options are needed):
                   2655: @example
                   2656: ./configure
                   2657: make
                   2658: @end example
                   2659: 
                   2660: Then type as root user:
                   2661: @example
                   2662: make install
                   2663: @end example
                   2664: to install QEMU in @file{/usr/local}.
                   2665: 
1.1.1.5   root     2666: @subsection GCC version
1.1       root     2667: 
1.1.1.5   root     2668: In order to compile QEMU successfully, it is very important that you
                   2669: have the right tools. The most important one is gcc. On most hosts and
                   2670: in particular on x86 ones, @emph{gcc 4.x is not supported}. If your
                   2671: Linux distribution includes a gcc 4.x compiler, you can usually
                   2672: install an older version (it is invoked by @code{gcc32} or
                   2673: @code{gcc34}). The QEMU configure script automatically probes for
1.1.1.6 ! root     2674: these older versions so that usually you don't have to do anything.
1.1       root     2675: 
1.1.1.3   root     2676: @node Windows
1.1       root     2677: @section Windows
                   2678: 
                   2679: @itemize
                   2680: @item Install the current versions of MSYS and MinGW from
                   2681: @url{http://www.mingw.org/}. You can find detailed installation
                   2682: instructions in the download section and the FAQ.
                   2683: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2684: @item Download
1.1       root     2685: the MinGW development library of SDL 1.2.x
1.1.1.3   root     2686: (@file{SDL-devel-1.2.x-@/mingw32.tar.gz}) from
1.1       root     2687: @url{http://www.libsdl.org}. Unpack it in a temporary place, and
                   2688: unpack the archive @file{i386-mingw32msvc.tar.gz} in the MinGW tool
                   2689: directory. Edit the @file{sdl-config} script so that it gives the
                   2690: correct SDL directory when invoked.
                   2691: 
                   2692: @item Extract the current version of QEMU.
1.1.1.6 ! root     2693: 
1.1       root     2694: @item Start the MSYS shell (file @file{msys.bat}).
                   2695: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2696: @item Change to the QEMU directory. Launch @file{./configure} and
1.1       root     2697: @file{make}.  If you have problems using SDL, verify that
                   2698: @file{sdl-config} can be launched from the MSYS command line.
                   2699: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2700: @item You can install QEMU in @file{Program Files/Qemu} by typing
1.1       root     2701: @file{make install}. Don't forget to copy @file{SDL.dll} in
                   2702: @file{Program Files/Qemu}.
                   2703: 
                   2704: @end itemize
                   2705: 
1.1.1.3   root     2706: @node Cross compilation for Windows with Linux
1.1       root     2707: @section Cross compilation for Windows with Linux
                   2708: 
                   2709: @itemize
                   2710: @item
                   2711: Install the MinGW cross compilation tools available at
                   2712: @url{http://www.mingw.org/}.
                   2713: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2714: @item
1.1       root     2715: Install the Win32 version of SDL (@url{http://www.libsdl.org}) by
                   2716: unpacking @file{i386-mingw32msvc.tar.gz}. Set up the PATH environment
                   2717: variable so that @file{i386-mingw32msvc-sdl-config} can be launched by
                   2718: the QEMU configuration script.
                   2719: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2720: @item
1.1       root     2721: Configure QEMU for Windows cross compilation:
                   2722: @example
                   2723: ./configure --enable-mingw32
                   2724: @end example
                   2725: If necessary, you can change the cross-prefix according to the prefix
1.1.1.6 ! root     2726: chosen for the MinGW tools with --cross-prefix. You can also use
1.1       root     2727: --prefix to set the Win32 install path.
                   2728: 
1.1.1.6 ! root     2729: @item You can install QEMU in the installation directory by typing
1.1       root     2730: @file{make install}. Don't forget to copy @file{SDL.dll} in the
1.1.1.6 ! root     2731: installation directory.
1.1       root     2732: 
                   2733: @end itemize
                   2734: 
                   2735: Note: Currently, Wine does not seem able to launch
                   2736: QEMU for Win32.
                   2737: 
1.1.1.3   root     2738: @node Mac OS X
1.1       root     2739: @section Mac OS X
                   2740: 
                   2741: The Mac OS X patches are not fully merged in QEMU, so you should look
                   2742: at the QEMU mailing list archive to have all the necessary
                   2743: information.
                   2744: 
1.1.1.3   root     2745: @node Index
                   2746: @chapter Index
                   2747: @printindex cp
                   2748: 
                   2749: @bye

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