File:  [Qemu by Fabrice Bellard] / qemu / qemu-img.c
Revision 1.1.1.15 (vendor branch): download - view: text, annotated - select for diffs
Tue Apr 24 19:34:36 2018 UTC (21 months ago) by root
Branches: qemu, MAIN
CVS tags: qemu1101, HEAD
qemu 1.1.1

    1: /*
    2:  * QEMU disk image utility
    3:  *
    4:  * Copyright (c) 2003-2008 Fabrice Bellard
    5:  *
    6:  * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
    7:  * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
    8:  * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
    9:  * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
   10:  * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
   11:  * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
   12:  *
   13:  * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
   14:  * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
   15:  *
   16:  * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
   17:  * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
   18:  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
   19:  * THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
   20:  * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
   21:  * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
   22:  * THE SOFTWARE.
   23:  */
   24: #include "qemu-common.h"
   25: #include "qemu-option.h"
   26: #include "qemu-error.h"
   27: #include "osdep.h"
   28: #include "sysemu.h"
   29: #include "block_int.h"
   30: #include <stdio.h>
   31: 
   32: #ifdef _WIN32
   33: #include <windows.h>
   34: #endif
   35: 
   36: typedef struct img_cmd_t {
   37:     const char *name;
   38:     int (*handler)(int argc, char **argv);
   39: } img_cmd_t;
   40: 
   41: /* Default to cache=writeback as data integrity is not important for qemu-tcg. */
   42: #define BDRV_O_FLAGS BDRV_O_CACHE_WB
   43: #define BDRV_DEFAULT_CACHE "writeback"
   44: 
   45: static void format_print(void *opaque, const char *name)
   46: {
   47:     printf(" %s", name);
   48: }
   49: 
   50: /* Please keep in synch with qemu-img.texi */
   51: static void help(void)
   52: {
   53:     const char *help_msg =
   54:            "qemu-img version " QEMU_VERSION ", Copyright (c) 2004-2008 Fabrice Bellard\n"
   55:            "usage: qemu-img command [command options]\n"
   56:            "QEMU disk image utility\n"
   57:            "\n"
   58:            "Command syntax:\n"
   59: #define DEF(option, callback, arg_string)        \
   60:            "  " arg_string "\n"
   61: #include "qemu-img-cmds.h"
   62: #undef DEF
   63: #undef GEN_DOCS
   64:            "\n"
   65:            "Command parameters:\n"
   66:            "  'filename' is a disk image filename\n"
   67:            "  'fmt' is the disk image format. It is guessed automatically in most cases\n"
   68:            "  'cache' is the cache mode used to write the output disk image, the valid\n"
   69:            "    options are: 'none', 'writeback' (default, except for convert), 'writethrough',\n"
   70:            "    'directsync' and 'unsafe' (default for convert)\n"
   71:            "  'size' is the disk image size in bytes. Optional suffixes\n"
   72:            "    'k' or 'K' (kilobyte, 1024), 'M' (megabyte, 1024k), 'G' (gigabyte, 1024M)\n"
   73:            "    and T (terabyte, 1024G) are supported. 'b' is ignored.\n"
   74:            "  'output_filename' is the destination disk image filename\n"
   75:            "  'output_fmt' is the destination format\n"
   76:            "  'options' is a comma separated list of format specific options in a\n"
   77:            "    name=value format. Use -o ? for an overview of the options supported by the\n"
   78:            "    used format\n"
   79:            "  '-c' indicates that target image must be compressed (qcow format only)\n"
   80:            "  '-u' enables unsafe rebasing. It is assumed that old and new backing file\n"
   81:            "       match exactly. The image doesn't need a working backing file before\n"
   82:            "       rebasing in this case (useful for renaming the backing file)\n"
   83:            "  '-h' with or without a command shows this help and lists the supported formats\n"
   84:            "  '-p' show progress of command (only certain commands)\n"
   85:            "  '-S' indicates the consecutive number of bytes that must contain only zeros\n"
   86:            "       for qemu-img to create a sparse image during conversion\n"
   87:            "\n"
   88:            "Parameters to snapshot subcommand:\n"
   89:            "  'snapshot' is the name of the snapshot to create, apply or delete\n"
   90:            "  '-a' applies a snapshot (revert disk to saved state)\n"
   91:            "  '-c' creates a snapshot\n"
   92:            "  '-d' deletes a snapshot\n"
   93:            "  '-l' lists all snapshots in the given image\n";
   94: 
   95:     printf("%s\nSupported formats:", help_msg);
   96:     bdrv_iterate_format(format_print, NULL);
   97:     printf("\n");
   98:     exit(1);
   99: }
  100: 
  101: #if defined(WIN32)
  102: /* XXX: put correct support for win32 */
  103: static int read_password(char *buf, int buf_size)
  104: {
  105:     int c, i;
  106:     printf("Password: ");
  107:     fflush(stdout);
  108:     i = 0;
  109:     for(;;) {
  110:         c = getchar();
  111:         if (c == '\n')
  112:             break;
  113:         if (i < (buf_size - 1))
  114:             buf[i++] = c;
  115:     }
  116:     buf[i] = '\0';
  117:     return 0;
  118: }
  119: 
  120: #else
  121: 
  122: #include <termios.h>
  123: 
  124: static struct termios oldtty;
  125: 
  126: static void term_exit(void)
  127: {
  128:     tcsetattr (0, TCSANOW, &oldtty);
  129: }
  130: 
  131: static void term_init(void)
  132: {
  133:     struct termios tty;
  134: 
  135:     tcgetattr (0, &tty);
  136:     oldtty = tty;
  137: 
  138:     tty.c_iflag &= ~(IGNBRK|BRKINT|PARMRK|ISTRIP
  139:                           |INLCR|IGNCR|ICRNL|IXON);
  140:     tty.c_oflag |= OPOST;
  141:     tty.c_lflag &= ~(ECHO|ECHONL|ICANON|IEXTEN);
  142:     tty.c_cflag &= ~(CSIZE|PARENB);
  143:     tty.c_cflag |= CS8;
  144:     tty.c_cc[VMIN] = 1;
  145:     tty.c_cc[VTIME] = 0;
  146: 
  147:     tcsetattr (0, TCSANOW, &tty);
  148: 
  149:     atexit(term_exit);
  150: }
  151: 
  152: static int read_password(char *buf, int buf_size)
  153: {
  154:     uint8_t ch;
  155:     int i, ret;
  156: 
  157:     printf("password: ");
  158:     fflush(stdout);
  159:     term_init();
  160:     i = 0;
  161:     for(;;) {
  162:         ret = read(0, &ch, 1);
  163:         if (ret == -1) {
  164:             if (errno == EAGAIN || errno == EINTR) {
  165:                 continue;
  166:             } else {
  167:                 ret = -1;
  168:                 break;
  169:             }
  170:         } else if (ret == 0) {
  171:             ret = -1;
  172:             break;
  173:         } else {
  174:             if (ch == '\r') {
  175:                 ret = 0;
  176:                 break;
  177:             }
  178:             if (i < (buf_size - 1))
  179:                 buf[i++] = ch;
  180:         }
  181:     }
  182:     term_exit();
  183:     buf[i] = '\0';
  184:     printf("\n");
  185:     return ret;
  186: }
  187: #endif
  188: 
  189: static int print_block_option_help(const char *filename, const char *fmt)
  190: {
  191:     BlockDriver *drv, *proto_drv;
  192:     QEMUOptionParameter *create_options = NULL;
  193: 
  194:     /* Find driver and parse its options */
  195:     drv = bdrv_find_format(fmt);
  196:     if (!drv) {
  197:         error_report("Unknown file format '%s'", fmt);
  198:         return 1;
  199:     }
  200: 
  201:     proto_drv = bdrv_find_protocol(filename);
  202:     if (!proto_drv) {
  203:         error_report("Unknown protocol '%s'", filename);
  204:         return 1;
  205:     }
  206: 
  207:     create_options = append_option_parameters(create_options,
  208:                                               drv->create_options);
  209:     create_options = append_option_parameters(create_options,
  210:                                               proto_drv->create_options);
  211:     print_option_help(create_options);
  212:     free_option_parameters(create_options);
  213:     return 0;
  214: }
  215: 
  216: static BlockDriverState *bdrv_new_open(const char *filename,
  217:                                        const char *fmt,
  218:                                        int flags)
  219: {
  220:     BlockDriverState *bs;
  221:     BlockDriver *drv;
  222:     char password[256];
  223:     int ret;
  224: 
  225:     bs = bdrv_new("image");
  226: 
  227:     if (fmt) {
  228:         drv = bdrv_find_format(fmt);
  229:         if (!drv) {
  230:             error_report("Unknown file format '%s'", fmt);
  231:             goto fail;
  232:         }
  233:     } else {
  234:         drv = NULL;
  235:     }
  236: 
  237:     ret = bdrv_open(bs, filename, flags, drv);
  238:     if (ret < 0) {
  239:         error_report("Could not open '%s': %s", filename, strerror(-ret));
  240:         goto fail;
  241:     }
  242: 
  243:     if (bdrv_is_encrypted(bs)) {
  244:         printf("Disk image '%s' is encrypted.\n", filename);
  245:         if (read_password(password, sizeof(password)) < 0) {
  246:             error_report("No password given");
  247:             goto fail;
  248:         }
  249:         if (bdrv_set_key(bs, password) < 0) {
  250:             error_report("invalid password");
  251:             goto fail;
  252:         }
  253:     }
  254:     return bs;
  255: fail:
  256:     if (bs) {
  257:         bdrv_delete(bs);
  258:     }
  259:     return NULL;
  260: }
  261: 
  262: static int add_old_style_options(const char *fmt, QEMUOptionParameter *list,
  263:                                  const char *base_filename,
  264:                                  const char *base_fmt)
  265: {
  266:     if (base_filename) {
  267:         if (set_option_parameter(list, BLOCK_OPT_BACKING_FILE, base_filename)) {
  268:             error_report("Backing file not supported for file format '%s'",
  269:                          fmt);
  270:             return -1;
  271:         }
  272:     }
  273:     if (base_fmt) {
  274:         if (set_option_parameter(list, BLOCK_OPT_BACKING_FMT, base_fmt)) {
  275:             error_report("Backing file format not supported for file "
  276:                          "format '%s'", fmt);
  277:             return -1;
  278:         }
  279:     }
  280:     return 0;
  281: }
  282: 
  283: static int img_create(int argc, char **argv)
  284: {
  285:     int c, ret = 0;
  286:     uint64_t img_size = -1;
  287:     const char *fmt = "raw";
  288:     const char *base_fmt = NULL;
  289:     const char *filename;
  290:     const char *base_filename = NULL;
  291:     char *options = NULL;
  292: 
  293:     for(;;) {
  294:         c = getopt(argc, argv, "F:b:f:he6o:");
  295:         if (c == -1) {
  296:             break;
  297:         }
  298:         switch(c) {
  299:         case '?':
  300:         case 'h':
  301:             help();
  302:             break;
  303:         case 'F':
  304:             base_fmt = optarg;
  305:             break;
  306:         case 'b':
  307:             base_filename = optarg;
  308:             break;
  309:         case 'f':
  310:             fmt = optarg;
  311:             break;
  312:         case 'e':
  313:             error_report("option -e is deprecated, please use \'-o "
  314:                   "encryption\' instead!");
  315:             return 1;
  316:         case '6':
  317:             error_report("option -6 is deprecated, please use \'-o "
  318:                   "compat6\' instead!");
  319:             return 1;
  320:         case 'o':
  321:             options = optarg;
  322:             break;
  323:         }
  324:     }
  325: 
  326:     /* Get the filename */
  327:     if (optind >= argc) {
  328:         help();
  329:     }
  330:     filename = argv[optind++];
  331: 
  332:     /* Get image size, if specified */
  333:     if (optind < argc) {
  334:         int64_t sval;
  335:         char *end;
  336:         sval = strtosz_suffix(argv[optind++], &end, STRTOSZ_DEFSUFFIX_B);
  337:         if (sval < 0 || *end) {
  338:             error_report("Invalid image size specified! You may use k, M, G or "
  339:                   "T suffixes for ");
  340:             error_report("kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes and terabytes.");
  341:             ret = -1;
  342:             goto out;
  343:         }
  344:         img_size = (uint64_t)sval;
  345:     }
  346: 
  347:     if (options && !strcmp(options, "?")) {
  348:         ret = print_block_option_help(filename, fmt);
  349:         goto out;
  350:     }
  351: 
  352:     ret = bdrv_img_create(filename, fmt, base_filename, base_fmt,
  353:                           options, img_size, BDRV_O_FLAGS);
  354: out:
  355:     if (ret) {
  356:         return 1;
  357:     }
  358:     return 0;
  359: }
  360: 
  361: /*
  362:  * Checks an image for consistency. Exit codes:
  363:  *
  364:  * 0 - Check completed, image is good
  365:  * 1 - Check not completed because of internal errors
  366:  * 2 - Check completed, image is corrupted
  367:  * 3 - Check completed, image has leaked clusters, but is good otherwise
  368:  */
  369: static int img_check(int argc, char **argv)
  370: {
  371:     int c, ret;
  372:     const char *filename, *fmt;
  373:     BlockDriverState *bs;
  374:     BdrvCheckResult result;
  375: 
  376:     fmt = NULL;
  377:     for(;;) {
  378:         c = getopt(argc, argv, "f:h");
  379:         if (c == -1) {
  380:             break;
  381:         }
  382:         switch(c) {
  383:         case '?':
  384:         case 'h':
  385:             help();
  386:             break;
  387:         case 'f':
  388:             fmt = optarg;
  389:             break;
  390:         }
  391:     }
  392:     if (optind >= argc) {
  393:         help();
  394:     }
  395:     filename = argv[optind++];
  396: 
  397:     bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, BDRV_O_FLAGS);
  398:     if (!bs) {
  399:         return 1;
  400:     }
  401:     ret = bdrv_check(bs, &result);
  402: 
  403:     if (ret == -ENOTSUP) {
  404:         error_report("This image format does not support checks");
  405:         bdrv_delete(bs);
  406:         return 1;
  407:     }
  408: 
  409:     if (!(result.corruptions || result.leaks || result.check_errors)) {
  410:         printf("No errors were found on the image.\n");
  411:     } else {
  412:         if (result.corruptions) {
  413:             printf("\n%d errors were found on the image.\n"
  414:                 "Data may be corrupted, or further writes to the image "
  415:                 "may corrupt it.\n",
  416:                 result.corruptions);
  417:         }
  418: 
  419:         if (result.leaks) {
  420:             printf("\n%d leaked clusters were found on the image.\n"
  421:                 "This means waste of disk space, but no harm to data.\n",
  422:                 result.leaks);
  423:         }
  424: 
  425:         if (result.check_errors) {
  426:             printf("\n%d internal errors have occurred during the check.\n",
  427:                 result.check_errors);
  428:         }
  429:     }
  430: 
  431:     if (result.bfi.total_clusters != 0 && result.bfi.allocated_clusters != 0) {
  432:         printf("%" PRId64 "/%" PRId64 "= %0.2f%% allocated, %0.2f%% fragmented\n",
  433:         result.bfi.allocated_clusters, result.bfi.total_clusters,
  434:         result.bfi.allocated_clusters * 100.0 / result.bfi.total_clusters,
  435:         result.bfi.fragmented_clusters * 100.0 / result.bfi.allocated_clusters);
  436:     }
  437: 
  438:     bdrv_delete(bs);
  439: 
  440:     if (ret < 0 || result.check_errors) {
  441:         printf("\nAn error has occurred during the check: %s\n"
  442:             "The check is not complete and may have missed error.\n",
  443:             strerror(-ret));
  444:         return 1;
  445:     }
  446: 
  447:     if (result.corruptions) {
  448:         return 2;
  449:     } else if (result.leaks) {
  450:         return 3;
  451:     } else {
  452:         return 0;
  453:     }
  454: }
  455: 
  456: static int img_commit(int argc, char **argv)
  457: {
  458:     int c, ret, flags;
  459:     const char *filename, *fmt, *cache;
  460:     BlockDriverState *bs;
  461: 
  462:     fmt = NULL;
  463:     cache = BDRV_DEFAULT_CACHE;
  464:     for(;;) {
  465:         c = getopt(argc, argv, "f:ht:");
  466:         if (c == -1) {
  467:             break;
  468:         }
  469:         switch(c) {
  470:         case '?':
  471:         case 'h':
  472:             help();
  473:             break;
  474:         case 'f':
  475:             fmt = optarg;
  476:             break;
  477:         case 't':
  478:             cache = optarg;
  479:             break;
  480:         }
  481:     }
  482:     if (optind >= argc) {
  483:         help();
  484:     }
  485:     filename = argv[optind++];
  486: 
  487:     flags = BDRV_O_RDWR;
  488:     ret = bdrv_parse_cache_flags(cache, &flags);
  489:     if (ret < 0) {
  490:         error_report("Invalid cache option: %s", cache);
  491:         return -1;
  492:     }
  493: 
  494:     bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, flags);
  495:     if (!bs) {
  496:         return 1;
  497:     }
  498:     ret = bdrv_commit(bs);
  499:     switch(ret) {
  500:     case 0:
  501:         printf("Image committed.\n");
  502:         break;
  503:     case -ENOENT:
  504:         error_report("No disk inserted");
  505:         break;
  506:     case -EACCES:
  507:         error_report("Image is read-only");
  508:         break;
  509:     case -ENOTSUP:
  510:         error_report("Image is already committed");
  511:         break;
  512:     default:
  513:         error_report("Error while committing image");
  514:         break;
  515:     }
  516: 
  517:     bdrv_delete(bs);
  518:     if (ret) {
  519:         return 1;
  520:     }
  521:     return 0;
  522: }
  523: 
  524: /*
  525:  * Returns true iff the first sector pointed to by 'buf' contains at least
  526:  * a non-NUL byte.
  527:  *
  528:  * 'pnum' is set to the number of sectors (including and immediately following
  529:  * the first one) that are known to be in the same allocated/unallocated state.
  530:  */
  531: static int is_allocated_sectors(const uint8_t *buf, int n, int *pnum)
  532: {
  533:     bool is_zero;
  534:     int i;
  535: 
  536:     if (n <= 0) {
  537:         *pnum = 0;
  538:         return 0;
  539:     }
  540:     is_zero = buffer_is_zero(buf, 512);
  541:     for(i = 1; i < n; i++) {
  542:         buf += 512;
  543:         if (is_zero != buffer_is_zero(buf, 512)) {
  544:             break;
  545:         }
  546:     }
  547:     *pnum = i;
  548:     return !is_zero;
  549: }
  550: 
  551: /*
  552:  * Like is_allocated_sectors, but if the buffer starts with a used sector,
  553:  * up to 'min' consecutive sectors containing zeros are ignored. This avoids
  554:  * breaking up write requests for only small sparse areas.
  555:  */
  556: static int is_allocated_sectors_min(const uint8_t *buf, int n, int *pnum,
  557:     int min)
  558: {
  559:     int ret;
  560:     int num_checked, num_used;
  561: 
  562:     if (n < min) {
  563:         min = n;
  564:     }
  565: 
  566:     ret = is_allocated_sectors(buf, n, pnum);
  567:     if (!ret) {
  568:         return ret;
  569:     }
  570: 
  571:     num_used = *pnum;
  572:     buf += BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE * *pnum;
  573:     n -= *pnum;
  574:     num_checked = num_used;
  575: 
  576:     while (n > 0) {
  577:         ret = is_allocated_sectors(buf, n, pnum);
  578: 
  579:         buf += BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE * *pnum;
  580:         n -= *pnum;
  581:         num_checked += *pnum;
  582:         if (ret) {
  583:             num_used = num_checked;
  584:         } else if (*pnum >= min) {
  585:             break;
  586:         }
  587:     }
  588: 
  589:     *pnum = num_used;
  590:     return 1;
  591: }
  592: 
  593: /*
  594:  * Compares two buffers sector by sector. Returns 0 if the first sector of both
  595:  * buffers matches, non-zero otherwise.
  596:  *
  597:  * pnum is set to the number of sectors (including and immediately following
  598:  * the first one) that are known to have the same comparison result
  599:  */
  600: static int compare_sectors(const uint8_t *buf1, const uint8_t *buf2, int n,
  601:     int *pnum)
  602: {
  603:     int res, i;
  604: 
  605:     if (n <= 0) {
  606:         *pnum = 0;
  607:         return 0;
  608:     }
  609: 
  610:     res = !!memcmp(buf1, buf2, 512);
  611:     for(i = 1; i < n; i++) {
  612:         buf1 += 512;
  613:         buf2 += 512;
  614: 
  615:         if (!!memcmp(buf1, buf2, 512) != res) {
  616:             break;
  617:         }
  618:     }
  619: 
  620:     *pnum = i;
  621:     return res;
  622: }
  623: 
  624: #define IO_BUF_SIZE (2 * 1024 * 1024)
  625: 
  626: static int img_convert(int argc, char **argv)
  627: {
  628:     int c, ret = 0, n, n1, bs_n, bs_i, compress, cluster_size, cluster_sectors;
  629:     int progress = 0, flags;
  630:     const char *fmt, *out_fmt, *cache, *out_baseimg, *out_filename;
  631:     BlockDriver *drv, *proto_drv;
  632:     BlockDriverState **bs = NULL, *out_bs = NULL;
  633:     int64_t total_sectors, nb_sectors, sector_num, bs_offset;
  634:     uint64_t bs_sectors;
  635:     uint8_t * buf = NULL;
  636:     const uint8_t *buf1;
  637:     BlockDriverInfo bdi;
  638:     QEMUOptionParameter *param = NULL, *create_options = NULL;
  639:     QEMUOptionParameter *out_baseimg_param;
  640:     char *options = NULL;
  641:     const char *snapshot_name = NULL;
  642:     float local_progress;
  643:     int min_sparse = 8; /* Need at least 4k of zeros for sparse detection */
  644: 
  645:     fmt = NULL;
  646:     out_fmt = "raw";
  647:     cache = "unsafe";
  648:     out_baseimg = NULL;
  649:     compress = 0;
  650:     for(;;) {
  651:         c = getopt(argc, argv, "f:O:B:s:hce6o:pS:t:");
  652:         if (c == -1) {
  653:             break;
  654:         }
  655:         switch(c) {
  656:         case '?':
  657:         case 'h':
  658:             help();
  659:             break;
  660:         case 'f':
  661:             fmt = optarg;
  662:             break;
  663:         case 'O':
  664:             out_fmt = optarg;
  665:             break;
  666:         case 'B':
  667:             out_baseimg = optarg;
  668:             break;
  669:         case 'c':
  670:             compress = 1;
  671:             break;
  672:         case 'e':
  673:             error_report("option -e is deprecated, please use \'-o "
  674:                   "encryption\' instead!");
  675:             return 1;
  676:         case '6':
  677:             error_report("option -6 is deprecated, please use \'-o "
  678:                   "compat6\' instead!");
  679:             return 1;
  680:         case 'o':
  681:             options = optarg;
  682:             break;
  683:         case 's':
  684:             snapshot_name = optarg;
  685:             break;
  686:         case 'S':
  687:         {
  688:             int64_t sval;
  689:             char *end;
  690:             sval = strtosz_suffix(optarg, &end, STRTOSZ_DEFSUFFIX_B);
  691:             if (sval < 0 || *end) {
  692:                 error_report("Invalid minimum zero buffer size for sparse output specified");
  693:                 return 1;
  694:             }
  695: 
  696:             min_sparse = sval / BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE;
  697:             break;
  698:         }
  699:         case 'p':
  700:             progress = 1;
  701:             break;
  702:         case 't':
  703:             cache = optarg;
  704:             break;
  705:         }
  706:     }
  707: 
  708:     bs_n = argc - optind - 1;
  709:     if (bs_n < 1) {
  710:         help();
  711:     }
  712: 
  713:     out_filename = argv[argc - 1];
  714: 
  715:     /* Initialize before goto out */
  716:     qemu_progress_init(progress, 2.0);
  717: 
  718:     if (options && !strcmp(options, "?")) {
  719:         ret = print_block_option_help(out_filename, out_fmt);
  720:         goto out;
  721:     }
  722: 
  723:     if (bs_n > 1 && out_baseimg) {
  724:         error_report("-B makes no sense when concatenating multiple input "
  725:                      "images");
  726:         ret = -1;
  727:         goto out;
  728:     }
  729: 
  730:     qemu_progress_print(0, 100);
  731: 
  732:     bs = g_malloc0(bs_n * sizeof(BlockDriverState *));
  733: 
  734:     total_sectors = 0;
  735:     for (bs_i = 0; bs_i < bs_n; bs_i++) {
  736:         bs[bs_i] = bdrv_new_open(argv[optind + bs_i], fmt, BDRV_O_FLAGS);
  737:         if (!bs[bs_i]) {
  738:             error_report("Could not open '%s'", argv[optind + bs_i]);
  739:             ret = -1;
  740:             goto out;
  741:         }
  742:         bdrv_get_geometry(bs[bs_i], &bs_sectors);
  743:         total_sectors += bs_sectors;
  744:     }
  745: 
  746:     if (snapshot_name != NULL) {
  747:         if (bs_n > 1) {
  748:             error_report("No support for concatenating multiple snapshot");
  749:             ret = -1;
  750:             goto out;
  751:         }
  752:         if (bdrv_snapshot_load_tmp(bs[0], snapshot_name) < 0) {
  753:             error_report("Failed to load snapshot");
  754:             ret = -1;
  755:             goto out;
  756:         }
  757:     }
  758: 
  759:     /* Find driver and parse its options */
  760:     drv = bdrv_find_format(out_fmt);
  761:     if (!drv) {
  762:         error_report("Unknown file format '%s'", out_fmt);
  763:         ret = -1;
  764:         goto out;
  765:     }
  766: 
  767:     proto_drv = bdrv_find_protocol(out_filename);
  768:     if (!proto_drv) {
  769:         error_report("Unknown protocol '%s'", out_filename);
  770:         ret = -1;
  771:         goto out;
  772:     }
  773: 
  774:     create_options = append_option_parameters(create_options,
  775:                                               drv->create_options);
  776:     create_options = append_option_parameters(create_options,
  777:                                               proto_drv->create_options);
  778: 
  779:     if (options) {
  780:         param = parse_option_parameters(options, create_options, param);
  781:         if (param == NULL) {
  782:             error_report("Invalid options for file format '%s'.", out_fmt);
  783:             ret = -1;
  784:             goto out;
  785:         }
  786:     } else {
  787:         param = parse_option_parameters("", create_options, param);
  788:     }
  789: 
  790:     set_option_parameter_int(param, BLOCK_OPT_SIZE, total_sectors * 512);
  791:     ret = add_old_style_options(out_fmt, param, out_baseimg, NULL);
  792:     if (ret < 0) {
  793:         goto out;
  794:     }
  795: 
  796:     /* Get backing file name if -o backing_file was used */
  797:     out_baseimg_param = get_option_parameter(param, BLOCK_OPT_BACKING_FILE);
  798:     if (out_baseimg_param) {
  799:         out_baseimg = out_baseimg_param->value.s;
  800:     }
  801: 
  802:     /* Check if compression is supported */
  803:     if (compress) {
  804:         QEMUOptionParameter *encryption =
  805:             get_option_parameter(param, BLOCK_OPT_ENCRYPT);
  806:         QEMUOptionParameter *preallocation =
  807:             get_option_parameter(param, BLOCK_OPT_PREALLOC);
  808: 
  809:         if (!drv->bdrv_write_compressed) {
  810:             error_report("Compression not supported for this file format");
  811:             ret = -1;
  812:             goto out;
  813:         }
  814: 
  815:         if (encryption && encryption->value.n) {
  816:             error_report("Compression and encryption not supported at "
  817:                          "the same time");
  818:             ret = -1;
  819:             goto out;
  820:         }
  821: 
  822:         if (preallocation && preallocation->value.s
  823:             && strcmp(preallocation->value.s, "off"))
  824:         {
  825:             error_report("Compression and preallocation not supported at "
  826:                          "the same time");
  827:             ret = -1;
  828:             goto out;
  829:         }
  830:     }
  831: 
  832:     /* Create the new image */
  833:     ret = bdrv_create(drv, out_filename, param);
  834:     if (ret < 0) {
  835:         if (ret == -ENOTSUP) {
  836:             error_report("Formatting not supported for file format '%s'",
  837:                          out_fmt);
  838:         } else if (ret == -EFBIG) {
  839:             error_report("The image size is too large for file format '%s'",
  840:                          out_fmt);
  841:         } else {
  842:             error_report("%s: error while converting %s: %s",
  843:                          out_filename, out_fmt, strerror(-ret));
  844:         }
  845:         goto out;
  846:     }
  847: 
  848:     flags = BDRV_O_RDWR;
  849:     ret = bdrv_parse_cache_flags(cache, &flags);
  850:     if (ret < 0) {
  851:         error_report("Invalid cache option: %s", cache);
  852:         return -1;
  853:     }
  854: 
  855:     out_bs = bdrv_new_open(out_filename, out_fmt, flags);
  856:     if (!out_bs) {
  857:         ret = -1;
  858:         goto out;
  859:     }
  860: 
  861:     bs_i = 0;
  862:     bs_offset = 0;
  863:     bdrv_get_geometry(bs[0], &bs_sectors);
  864:     buf = qemu_blockalign(out_bs, IO_BUF_SIZE);
  865: 
  866:     if (compress) {
  867:         ret = bdrv_get_info(out_bs, &bdi);
  868:         if (ret < 0) {
  869:             error_report("could not get block driver info");
  870:             goto out;
  871:         }
  872:         cluster_size = bdi.cluster_size;
  873:         if (cluster_size <= 0 || cluster_size > IO_BUF_SIZE) {
  874:             error_report("invalid cluster size");
  875:             ret = -1;
  876:             goto out;
  877:         }
  878:         cluster_sectors = cluster_size >> 9;
  879:         sector_num = 0;
  880: 
  881:         nb_sectors = total_sectors;
  882:         local_progress = (float)100 /
  883:             (nb_sectors / MIN(nb_sectors, cluster_sectors));
  884: 
  885:         for(;;) {
  886:             int64_t bs_num;
  887:             int remainder;
  888:             uint8_t *buf2;
  889: 
  890:             nb_sectors = total_sectors - sector_num;
  891:             if (nb_sectors <= 0)
  892:                 break;
  893:             if (nb_sectors >= cluster_sectors)
  894:                 n = cluster_sectors;
  895:             else
  896:                 n = nb_sectors;
  897: 
  898:             bs_num = sector_num - bs_offset;
  899:             assert (bs_num >= 0);
  900:             remainder = n;
  901:             buf2 = buf;
  902:             while (remainder > 0) {
  903:                 int nlow;
  904:                 while (bs_num == bs_sectors) {
  905:                     bs_i++;
  906:                     assert (bs_i < bs_n);
  907:                     bs_offset += bs_sectors;
  908:                     bdrv_get_geometry(bs[bs_i], &bs_sectors);
  909:                     bs_num = 0;
  910:                     /* printf("changing part: sector_num=%" PRId64 ", "
  911:                        "bs_i=%d, bs_offset=%" PRId64 ", bs_sectors=%" PRId64
  912:                        "\n", sector_num, bs_i, bs_offset, bs_sectors); */
  913:                 }
  914:                 assert (bs_num < bs_sectors);
  915: 
  916:                 nlow = (remainder > bs_sectors - bs_num) ? bs_sectors - bs_num : remainder;
  917: 
  918:                 ret = bdrv_read(bs[bs_i], bs_num, buf2, nlow);
  919:                 if (ret < 0) {
  920:                     error_report("error while reading sector %" PRId64 ": %s",
  921:                                  bs_num, strerror(-ret));
  922:                     goto out;
  923:                 }
  924: 
  925:                 buf2 += nlow * 512;
  926:                 bs_num += nlow;
  927: 
  928:                 remainder -= nlow;
  929:             }
  930:             assert (remainder == 0);
  931: 
  932:             if (n < cluster_sectors) {
  933:                 memset(buf + n * 512, 0, cluster_size - n * 512);
  934:             }
  935:             if (!buffer_is_zero(buf, cluster_size)) {
  936:                 ret = bdrv_write_compressed(out_bs, sector_num, buf,
  937:                                             cluster_sectors);
  938:                 if (ret != 0) {
  939:                     error_report("error while compressing sector %" PRId64
  940:                                  ": %s", sector_num, strerror(-ret));
  941:                     goto out;
  942:                 }
  943:             }
  944:             sector_num += n;
  945:             qemu_progress_print(local_progress, 100);
  946:         }
  947:         /* signal EOF to align */
  948:         bdrv_write_compressed(out_bs, 0, NULL, 0);
  949:     } else {
  950:         int has_zero_init = bdrv_has_zero_init(out_bs);
  951: 
  952:         sector_num = 0; // total number of sectors converted so far
  953:         nb_sectors = total_sectors - sector_num;
  954:         local_progress = (float)100 /
  955:             (nb_sectors / MIN(nb_sectors, IO_BUF_SIZE / 512));
  956: 
  957:         for(;;) {
  958:             nb_sectors = total_sectors - sector_num;
  959:             if (nb_sectors <= 0) {
  960:                 break;
  961:             }
  962:             if (nb_sectors >= (IO_BUF_SIZE / 512)) {
  963:                 n = (IO_BUF_SIZE / 512);
  964:             } else {
  965:                 n = nb_sectors;
  966:             }
  967: 
  968:             while (sector_num - bs_offset >= bs_sectors) {
  969:                 bs_i ++;
  970:                 assert (bs_i < bs_n);
  971:                 bs_offset += bs_sectors;
  972:                 bdrv_get_geometry(bs[bs_i], &bs_sectors);
  973:                 /* printf("changing part: sector_num=%" PRId64 ", bs_i=%d, "
  974:                   "bs_offset=%" PRId64 ", bs_sectors=%" PRId64 "\n",
  975:                    sector_num, bs_i, bs_offset, bs_sectors); */
  976:             }
  977: 
  978:             if (n > bs_offset + bs_sectors - sector_num) {
  979:                 n = bs_offset + bs_sectors - sector_num;
  980:             }
  981: 
  982:             if (has_zero_init) {
  983:                 /* If the output image is being created as a copy on write image,
  984:                    assume that sectors which are unallocated in the input image
  985:                    are present in both the output's and input's base images (no
  986:                    need to copy them). */
  987:                 if (out_baseimg) {
  988:                     if (!bdrv_is_allocated(bs[bs_i], sector_num - bs_offset,
  989:                                            n, &n1)) {
  990:                         sector_num += n1;
  991:                         continue;
  992:                     }
  993:                     /* The next 'n1' sectors are allocated in the input image. Copy
  994:                        only those as they may be followed by unallocated sectors. */
  995:                     n = n1;
  996:                 }
  997:             } else {
  998:                 n1 = n;
  999:             }
 1000: 
 1001:             ret = bdrv_read(bs[bs_i], sector_num - bs_offset, buf, n);
 1002:             if (ret < 0) {
 1003:                 error_report("error while reading sector %" PRId64 ": %s",
 1004:                              sector_num - bs_offset, strerror(-ret));
 1005:                 goto out;
 1006:             }
 1007:             /* NOTE: at the same time we convert, we do not write zero
 1008:                sectors to have a chance to compress the image. Ideally, we
 1009:                should add a specific call to have the info to go faster */
 1010:             buf1 = buf;
 1011:             while (n > 0) {
 1012:                 /* If the output image is being created as a copy on write image,
 1013:                    copy all sectors even the ones containing only NUL bytes,
 1014:                    because they may differ from the sectors in the base image.
 1015: 
 1016:                    If the output is to a host device, we also write out
 1017:                    sectors that are entirely 0, since whatever data was
 1018:                    already there is garbage, not 0s. */
 1019:                 if (!has_zero_init || out_baseimg ||
 1020:                     is_allocated_sectors_min(buf1, n, &n1, min_sparse)) {
 1021:                     ret = bdrv_write(out_bs, sector_num, buf1, n1);
 1022:                     if (ret < 0) {
 1023:                         error_report("error while writing sector %" PRId64
 1024:                                      ": %s", sector_num, strerror(-ret));
 1025:                         goto out;
 1026:                     }
 1027:                 }
 1028:                 sector_num += n1;
 1029:                 n -= n1;
 1030:                 buf1 += n1 * 512;
 1031:             }
 1032:             qemu_progress_print(local_progress, 100);
 1033:         }
 1034:     }
 1035: out:
 1036:     qemu_progress_end();
 1037:     free_option_parameters(create_options);
 1038:     free_option_parameters(param);
 1039:     qemu_vfree(buf);
 1040:     if (out_bs) {
 1041:         bdrv_delete(out_bs);
 1042:     }
 1043:     if (bs) {
 1044:         for (bs_i = 0; bs_i < bs_n; bs_i++) {
 1045:             if (bs[bs_i]) {
 1046:                 bdrv_delete(bs[bs_i]);
 1047:             }
 1048:         }
 1049:         g_free(bs);
 1050:     }
 1051:     if (ret) {
 1052:         return 1;
 1053:     }
 1054:     return 0;
 1055: }
 1056: 
 1057: 
 1058: static void dump_snapshots(BlockDriverState *bs)
 1059: {
 1060:     QEMUSnapshotInfo *sn_tab, *sn;
 1061:     int nb_sns, i;
 1062:     char buf[256];
 1063: 
 1064:     nb_sns = bdrv_snapshot_list(bs, &sn_tab);
 1065:     if (nb_sns <= 0)
 1066:         return;
 1067:     printf("Snapshot list:\n");
 1068:     printf("%s\n", bdrv_snapshot_dump(buf, sizeof(buf), NULL));
 1069:     for(i = 0; i < nb_sns; i++) {
 1070:         sn = &sn_tab[i];
 1071:         printf("%s\n", bdrv_snapshot_dump(buf, sizeof(buf), sn));
 1072:     }
 1073:     g_free(sn_tab);
 1074: }
 1075: 
 1076: static int img_info(int argc, char **argv)
 1077: {
 1078:     int c;
 1079:     const char *filename, *fmt;
 1080:     BlockDriverState *bs;
 1081:     char fmt_name[128], size_buf[128], dsize_buf[128];
 1082:     uint64_t total_sectors;
 1083:     int64_t allocated_size;
 1084:     char backing_filename[1024];
 1085:     char backing_filename2[1024];
 1086:     BlockDriverInfo bdi;
 1087: 
 1088:     fmt = NULL;
 1089:     for(;;) {
 1090:         c = getopt(argc, argv, "f:h");
 1091:         if (c == -1) {
 1092:             break;
 1093:         }
 1094:         switch(c) {
 1095:         case '?':
 1096:         case 'h':
 1097:             help();
 1098:             break;
 1099:         case 'f':
 1100:             fmt = optarg;
 1101:             break;
 1102:         }
 1103:     }
 1104:     if (optind >= argc) {
 1105:         help();
 1106:     }
 1107:     filename = argv[optind++];
 1108: 
 1109:     bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, BDRV_O_FLAGS | BDRV_O_NO_BACKING);
 1110:     if (!bs) {
 1111:         return 1;
 1112:     }
 1113:     bdrv_get_format(bs, fmt_name, sizeof(fmt_name));
 1114:     bdrv_get_geometry(bs, &total_sectors);
 1115:     get_human_readable_size(size_buf, sizeof(size_buf), total_sectors * 512);
 1116:     allocated_size = bdrv_get_allocated_file_size(bs);
 1117:     if (allocated_size < 0) {
 1118:         snprintf(dsize_buf, sizeof(dsize_buf), "unavailable");
 1119:     } else {
 1120:         get_human_readable_size(dsize_buf, sizeof(dsize_buf),
 1121:                                 allocated_size);
 1122:     }
 1123:     printf("image: %s\n"
 1124:            "file format: %s\n"
 1125:            "virtual size: %s (%" PRId64 " bytes)\n"
 1126:            "disk size: %s\n",
 1127:            filename, fmt_name, size_buf,
 1128:            (total_sectors * 512),
 1129:            dsize_buf);
 1130:     if (bdrv_is_encrypted(bs)) {
 1131:         printf("encrypted: yes\n");
 1132:     }
 1133:     if (bdrv_get_info(bs, &bdi) >= 0) {
 1134:         if (bdi.cluster_size != 0) {
 1135:             printf("cluster_size: %d\n", bdi.cluster_size);
 1136:         }
 1137:         if (bdi.is_dirty) {
 1138:             printf("cleanly shut down: no\n");
 1139:         }
 1140:     }
 1141:     bdrv_get_backing_filename(bs, backing_filename, sizeof(backing_filename));
 1142:     if (backing_filename[0] != '\0') {
 1143:         bdrv_get_full_backing_filename(bs, backing_filename2,
 1144:                                        sizeof(backing_filename2));
 1145:         printf("backing file: %s", backing_filename);
 1146:         if (strcmp(backing_filename, backing_filename2) != 0) {
 1147:             printf(" (actual path: %s)", backing_filename2);
 1148:         }
 1149:         putchar('\n');
 1150:     }
 1151:     dump_snapshots(bs);
 1152:     bdrv_delete(bs);
 1153:     return 0;
 1154: }
 1155: 
 1156: #define SNAPSHOT_LIST   1
 1157: #define SNAPSHOT_CREATE 2
 1158: #define SNAPSHOT_APPLY  3
 1159: #define SNAPSHOT_DELETE 4
 1160: 
 1161: static int img_snapshot(int argc, char **argv)
 1162: {
 1163:     BlockDriverState *bs;
 1164:     QEMUSnapshotInfo sn;
 1165:     char *filename, *snapshot_name = NULL;
 1166:     int c, ret = 0, bdrv_oflags;
 1167:     int action = 0;
 1168:     qemu_timeval tv;
 1169: 
 1170:     bdrv_oflags = BDRV_O_FLAGS | BDRV_O_RDWR;
 1171:     /* Parse commandline parameters */
 1172:     for(;;) {
 1173:         c = getopt(argc, argv, "la:c:d:h");
 1174:         if (c == -1) {
 1175:             break;
 1176:         }
 1177:         switch(c) {
 1178:         case '?':
 1179:         case 'h':
 1180:             help();
 1181:             return 0;
 1182:         case 'l':
 1183:             if (action) {
 1184:                 help();
 1185:                 return 0;
 1186:             }
 1187:             action = SNAPSHOT_LIST;
 1188:             bdrv_oflags &= ~BDRV_O_RDWR; /* no need for RW */
 1189:             break;
 1190:         case 'a':
 1191:             if (action) {
 1192:                 help();
 1193:                 return 0;
 1194:             }
 1195:             action = SNAPSHOT_APPLY;
 1196:             snapshot_name = optarg;
 1197:             break;
 1198:         case 'c':
 1199:             if (action) {
 1200:                 help();
 1201:                 return 0;
 1202:             }
 1203:             action = SNAPSHOT_CREATE;
 1204:             snapshot_name = optarg;
 1205:             break;
 1206:         case 'd':
 1207:             if (action) {
 1208:                 help();
 1209:                 return 0;
 1210:             }
 1211:             action = SNAPSHOT_DELETE;
 1212:             snapshot_name = optarg;
 1213:             break;
 1214:         }
 1215:     }
 1216: 
 1217:     if (optind >= argc) {
 1218:         help();
 1219:     }
 1220:     filename = argv[optind++];
 1221: 
 1222:     /* Open the image */
 1223:     bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, NULL, bdrv_oflags);
 1224:     if (!bs) {
 1225:         return 1;
 1226:     }
 1227: 
 1228:     /* Perform the requested action */
 1229:     switch(action) {
 1230:     case SNAPSHOT_LIST:
 1231:         dump_snapshots(bs);
 1232:         break;
 1233: 
 1234:     case SNAPSHOT_CREATE:
 1235:         memset(&sn, 0, sizeof(sn));
 1236:         pstrcpy(sn.name, sizeof(sn.name), snapshot_name);
 1237: 
 1238:         qemu_gettimeofday(&tv);
 1239:         sn.date_sec = tv.tv_sec;
 1240:         sn.date_nsec = tv.tv_usec * 1000;
 1241: 
 1242:         ret = bdrv_snapshot_create(bs, &sn);
 1243:         if (ret) {
 1244:             error_report("Could not create snapshot '%s': %d (%s)",
 1245:                 snapshot_name, ret, strerror(-ret));
 1246:         }
 1247:         break;
 1248: 
 1249:     case SNAPSHOT_APPLY:
 1250:         ret = bdrv_snapshot_goto(bs, snapshot_name);
 1251:         if (ret) {
 1252:             error_report("Could not apply snapshot '%s': %d (%s)",
 1253:                 snapshot_name, ret, strerror(-ret));
 1254:         }
 1255:         break;
 1256: 
 1257:     case SNAPSHOT_DELETE:
 1258:         ret = bdrv_snapshot_delete(bs, snapshot_name);
 1259:         if (ret) {
 1260:             error_report("Could not delete snapshot '%s': %d (%s)",
 1261:                 snapshot_name, ret, strerror(-ret));
 1262:         }
 1263:         break;
 1264:     }
 1265: 
 1266:     /* Cleanup */
 1267:     bdrv_delete(bs);
 1268:     if (ret) {
 1269:         return 1;
 1270:     }
 1271:     return 0;
 1272: }
 1273: 
 1274: static int img_rebase(int argc, char **argv)
 1275: {
 1276:     BlockDriverState *bs, *bs_old_backing = NULL, *bs_new_backing = NULL;
 1277:     BlockDriver *old_backing_drv, *new_backing_drv;
 1278:     char *filename;
 1279:     const char *fmt, *cache, *out_basefmt, *out_baseimg;
 1280:     int c, flags, ret;
 1281:     int unsafe = 0;
 1282:     int progress = 0;
 1283: 
 1284:     /* Parse commandline parameters */
 1285:     fmt = NULL;
 1286:     cache = BDRV_DEFAULT_CACHE;
 1287:     out_baseimg = NULL;
 1288:     out_basefmt = NULL;
 1289:     for(;;) {
 1290:         c = getopt(argc, argv, "uhf:F:b:pt:");
 1291:         if (c == -1) {
 1292:             break;
 1293:         }
 1294:         switch(c) {
 1295:         case '?':
 1296:         case 'h':
 1297:             help();
 1298:             return 0;
 1299:         case 'f':
 1300:             fmt = optarg;
 1301:             break;
 1302:         case 'F':
 1303:             out_basefmt = optarg;
 1304:             break;
 1305:         case 'b':
 1306:             out_baseimg = optarg;
 1307:             break;
 1308:         case 'u':
 1309:             unsafe = 1;
 1310:             break;
 1311:         case 'p':
 1312:             progress = 1;
 1313:             break;
 1314:         case 't':
 1315:             cache = optarg;
 1316:             break;
 1317:         }
 1318:     }
 1319: 
 1320:     if ((optind >= argc) || (!unsafe && !out_baseimg)) {
 1321:         help();
 1322:     }
 1323:     filename = argv[optind++];
 1324: 
 1325:     qemu_progress_init(progress, 2.0);
 1326:     qemu_progress_print(0, 100);
 1327: 
 1328:     flags = BDRV_O_RDWR | (unsafe ? BDRV_O_NO_BACKING : 0);
 1329:     ret = bdrv_parse_cache_flags(cache, &flags);
 1330:     if (ret < 0) {
 1331:         error_report("Invalid cache option: %s", cache);
 1332:         return -1;
 1333:     }
 1334: 
 1335:     /*
 1336:      * Open the images.
 1337:      *
 1338:      * Ignore the old backing file for unsafe rebase in case we want to correct
 1339:      * the reference to a renamed or moved backing file.
 1340:      */
 1341:     bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, flags);
 1342:     if (!bs) {
 1343:         return 1;
 1344:     }
 1345: 
 1346:     /* Find the right drivers for the backing files */
 1347:     old_backing_drv = NULL;
 1348:     new_backing_drv = NULL;
 1349: 
 1350:     if (!unsafe && bs->backing_format[0] != '\0') {
 1351:         old_backing_drv = bdrv_find_format(bs->backing_format);
 1352:         if (old_backing_drv == NULL) {
 1353:             error_report("Invalid format name: '%s'", bs->backing_format);
 1354:             ret = -1;
 1355:             goto out;
 1356:         }
 1357:     }
 1358: 
 1359:     if (out_basefmt != NULL) {
 1360:         new_backing_drv = bdrv_find_format(out_basefmt);
 1361:         if (new_backing_drv == NULL) {
 1362:             error_report("Invalid format name: '%s'", out_basefmt);
 1363:             ret = -1;
 1364:             goto out;
 1365:         }
 1366:     }
 1367: 
 1368:     /* For safe rebasing we need to compare old and new backing file */
 1369:     if (unsafe) {
 1370:         /* Make the compiler happy */
 1371:         bs_old_backing = NULL;
 1372:         bs_new_backing = NULL;
 1373:     } else {
 1374:         char backing_name[1024];
 1375: 
 1376:         bs_old_backing = bdrv_new("old_backing");
 1377:         bdrv_get_backing_filename(bs, backing_name, sizeof(backing_name));
 1378:         ret = bdrv_open(bs_old_backing, backing_name, BDRV_O_FLAGS,
 1379:                         old_backing_drv);
 1380:         if (ret) {
 1381:             error_report("Could not open old backing file '%s'", backing_name);
 1382:             goto out;
 1383:         }
 1384: 
 1385:         bs_new_backing = bdrv_new("new_backing");
 1386:         ret = bdrv_open(bs_new_backing, out_baseimg, BDRV_O_FLAGS,
 1387:                         new_backing_drv);
 1388:         if (ret) {
 1389:             error_report("Could not open new backing file '%s'", out_baseimg);
 1390:             goto out;
 1391:         }
 1392:     }
 1393: 
 1394:     /*
 1395:      * Check each unallocated cluster in the COW file. If it is unallocated,
 1396:      * accesses go to the backing file. We must therefore compare this cluster
 1397:      * in the old and new backing file, and if they differ we need to copy it
 1398:      * from the old backing file into the COW file.
 1399:      *
 1400:      * If qemu-img crashes during this step, no harm is done. The content of
 1401:      * the image is the same as the original one at any time.
 1402:      */
 1403:     if (!unsafe) {
 1404:         uint64_t num_sectors;
 1405:         uint64_t old_backing_num_sectors;
 1406:         uint64_t new_backing_num_sectors;
 1407:         uint64_t sector;
 1408:         int n;
 1409:         uint8_t * buf_old;
 1410:         uint8_t * buf_new;
 1411:         float local_progress;
 1412: 
 1413:         buf_old = qemu_blockalign(bs, IO_BUF_SIZE);
 1414:         buf_new = qemu_blockalign(bs, IO_BUF_SIZE);
 1415: 
 1416:         bdrv_get_geometry(bs, &num_sectors);
 1417:         bdrv_get_geometry(bs_old_backing, &old_backing_num_sectors);
 1418:         bdrv_get_geometry(bs_new_backing, &new_backing_num_sectors);
 1419: 
 1420:         local_progress = (float)100 /
 1421:             (num_sectors / MIN(num_sectors, IO_BUF_SIZE / 512));
 1422:         for (sector = 0; sector < num_sectors; sector += n) {
 1423: 
 1424:             /* How many sectors can we handle with the next read? */
 1425:             if (sector + (IO_BUF_SIZE / 512) <= num_sectors) {
 1426:                 n = (IO_BUF_SIZE / 512);
 1427:             } else {
 1428:                 n = num_sectors - sector;
 1429:             }
 1430: 
 1431:             /* If the cluster is allocated, we don't need to take action */
 1432:             ret = bdrv_is_allocated(bs, sector, n, &n);
 1433:             if (ret) {
 1434:                 continue;
 1435:             }
 1436: 
 1437:             /*
 1438:              * Read old and new backing file and take into consideration that
 1439:              * backing files may be smaller than the COW image.
 1440:              */
 1441:             if (sector >= old_backing_num_sectors) {
 1442:                 memset(buf_old, 0, n * BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE);
 1443:             } else {
 1444:                 if (sector + n > old_backing_num_sectors) {
 1445:                     n = old_backing_num_sectors - sector;
 1446:                 }
 1447: 
 1448:                 ret = bdrv_read(bs_old_backing, sector, buf_old, n);
 1449:                 if (ret < 0) {
 1450:                     error_report("error while reading from old backing file");
 1451:                     goto out;
 1452:                 }
 1453:             }
 1454: 
 1455:             if (sector >= new_backing_num_sectors) {
 1456:                 memset(buf_new, 0, n * BDRV_SECTOR_SIZE);
 1457:             } else {
 1458:                 if (sector + n > new_backing_num_sectors) {
 1459:                     n = new_backing_num_sectors - sector;
 1460:                 }
 1461: 
 1462:                 ret = bdrv_read(bs_new_backing, sector, buf_new, n);
 1463:                 if (ret < 0) {
 1464:                     error_report("error while reading from new backing file");
 1465:                     goto out;
 1466:                 }
 1467:             }
 1468: 
 1469:             /* If they differ, we need to write to the COW file */
 1470:             uint64_t written = 0;
 1471: 
 1472:             while (written < n) {
 1473:                 int pnum;
 1474: 
 1475:                 if (compare_sectors(buf_old + written * 512,
 1476:                     buf_new + written * 512, n - written, &pnum))
 1477:                 {
 1478:                     ret = bdrv_write(bs, sector + written,
 1479:                         buf_old + written * 512, pnum);
 1480:                     if (ret < 0) {
 1481:                         error_report("Error while writing to COW image: %s",
 1482:                             strerror(-ret));
 1483:                         goto out;
 1484:                     }
 1485:                 }
 1486: 
 1487:                 written += pnum;
 1488:             }
 1489:             qemu_progress_print(local_progress, 100);
 1490:         }
 1491: 
 1492:         qemu_vfree(buf_old);
 1493:         qemu_vfree(buf_new);
 1494:     }
 1495: 
 1496:     /*
 1497:      * Change the backing file. All clusters that are different from the old
 1498:      * backing file are overwritten in the COW file now, so the visible content
 1499:      * doesn't change when we switch the backing file.
 1500:      */
 1501:     ret = bdrv_change_backing_file(bs, out_baseimg, out_basefmt);
 1502:     if (ret == -ENOSPC) {
 1503:         error_report("Could not change the backing file to '%s': No "
 1504:                      "space left in the file header", out_baseimg);
 1505:     } else if (ret < 0) {
 1506:         error_report("Could not change the backing file to '%s': %s",
 1507:             out_baseimg, strerror(-ret));
 1508:     }
 1509: 
 1510:     qemu_progress_print(100, 0);
 1511:     /*
 1512:      * TODO At this point it is possible to check if any clusters that are
 1513:      * allocated in the COW file are the same in the backing file. If so, they
 1514:      * could be dropped from the COW file. Don't do this before switching the
 1515:      * backing file, in case of a crash this would lead to corruption.
 1516:      */
 1517: out:
 1518:     qemu_progress_end();
 1519:     /* Cleanup */
 1520:     if (!unsafe) {
 1521:         if (bs_old_backing != NULL) {
 1522:             bdrv_delete(bs_old_backing);
 1523:         }
 1524:         if (bs_new_backing != NULL) {
 1525:             bdrv_delete(bs_new_backing);
 1526:         }
 1527:     }
 1528: 
 1529:     bdrv_delete(bs);
 1530:     if (ret) {
 1531:         return 1;
 1532:     }
 1533:     return 0;
 1534: }
 1535: 
 1536: static int img_resize(int argc, char **argv)
 1537: {
 1538:     int c, ret, relative;
 1539:     const char *filename, *fmt, *size;
 1540:     int64_t n, total_size;
 1541:     BlockDriverState *bs = NULL;
 1542:     QEMUOptionParameter *param;
 1543:     QEMUOptionParameter resize_options[] = {
 1544:         {
 1545:             .name = BLOCK_OPT_SIZE,
 1546:             .type = OPT_SIZE,
 1547:             .help = "Virtual disk size"
 1548:         },
 1549:         { NULL }
 1550:     };
 1551: 
 1552:     /* Remove size from argv manually so that negative numbers are not treated
 1553:      * as options by getopt. */
 1554:     if (argc < 3) {
 1555:         help();
 1556:         return 1;
 1557:     }
 1558: 
 1559:     size = argv[--argc];
 1560: 
 1561:     /* Parse getopt arguments */
 1562:     fmt = NULL;
 1563:     for(;;) {
 1564:         c = getopt(argc, argv, "f:h");
 1565:         if (c == -1) {
 1566:             break;
 1567:         }
 1568:         switch(c) {
 1569:         case '?':
 1570:         case 'h':
 1571:             help();
 1572:             break;
 1573:         case 'f':
 1574:             fmt = optarg;
 1575:             break;
 1576:         }
 1577:     }
 1578:     if (optind >= argc) {
 1579:         help();
 1580:     }
 1581:     filename = argv[optind++];
 1582: 
 1583:     /* Choose grow, shrink, or absolute resize mode */
 1584:     switch (size[0]) {
 1585:     case '+':
 1586:         relative = 1;
 1587:         size++;
 1588:         break;
 1589:     case '-':
 1590:         relative = -1;
 1591:         size++;
 1592:         break;
 1593:     default:
 1594:         relative = 0;
 1595:         break;
 1596:     }
 1597: 
 1598:     /* Parse size */
 1599:     param = parse_option_parameters("", resize_options, NULL);
 1600:     if (set_option_parameter(param, BLOCK_OPT_SIZE, size)) {
 1601:         /* Error message already printed when size parsing fails */
 1602:         ret = -1;
 1603:         goto out;
 1604:     }
 1605:     n = get_option_parameter(param, BLOCK_OPT_SIZE)->value.n;
 1606:     free_option_parameters(param);
 1607: 
 1608:     bs = bdrv_new_open(filename, fmt, BDRV_O_FLAGS | BDRV_O_RDWR);
 1609:     if (!bs) {
 1610:         ret = -1;
 1611:         goto out;
 1612:     }
 1613: 
 1614:     if (relative) {
 1615:         total_size = bdrv_getlength(bs) + n * relative;
 1616:     } else {
 1617:         total_size = n;
 1618:     }
 1619:     if (total_size <= 0) {
 1620:         error_report("New image size must be positive");
 1621:         ret = -1;
 1622:         goto out;
 1623:     }
 1624: 
 1625:     ret = bdrv_truncate(bs, total_size);
 1626:     switch (ret) {
 1627:     case 0:
 1628:         printf("Image resized.\n");
 1629:         break;
 1630:     case -ENOTSUP:
 1631:         error_report("This image does not support resize");
 1632:         break;
 1633:     case -EACCES:
 1634:         error_report("Image is read-only");
 1635:         break;
 1636:     default:
 1637:         error_report("Error resizing image (%d)", -ret);
 1638:         break;
 1639:     }
 1640: out:
 1641:     if (bs) {
 1642:         bdrv_delete(bs);
 1643:     }
 1644:     if (ret) {
 1645:         return 1;
 1646:     }
 1647:     return 0;
 1648: }
 1649: 
 1650: static const img_cmd_t img_cmds[] = {
 1651: #define DEF(option, callback, arg_string)        \
 1652:     { option, callback },
 1653: #include "qemu-img-cmds.h"
 1654: #undef DEF
 1655: #undef GEN_DOCS
 1656:     { NULL, NULL, },
 1657: };
 1658: 
 1659: int main(int argc, char **argv)
 1660: {
 1661:     const img_cmd_t *cmd;
 1662:     const char *cmdname;
 1663: 
 1664:     error_set_progname(argv[0]);
 1665: 
 1666:     bdrv_init();
 1667:     if (argc < 2)
 1668:         help();
 1669:     cmdname = argv[1];
 1670:     argc--; argv++;
 1671: 
 1672:     qemu_init_main_loop();
 1673: 
 1674:     /* find the command */
 1675:     for(cmd = img_cmds; cmd->name != NULL; cmd++) {
 1676:         if (!strcmp(cmdname, cmd->name)) {
 1677:             return cmd->handler(argc, argv);
 1678:         }
 1679:     }
 1680: 
 1681:     /* not found */
 1682:     help();
 1683:     return 0;
 1684: }

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