File:  [Qemu by Fabrice Bellard] / qemu / qemu-io.c
Revision 1.1.1.6 (vendor branch): download - view: text, annotated - select for diffs
Tue Apr 24 19:17:56 2018 UTC (19 months, 1 week ago) by root
Branches: qemu, MAIN
CVS tags: qemu1001, HEAD
qemu 1.0.1

/*
 * Command line utility to exercise the QEMU I/O path.
 *
 * Copyright (C) 2009 Red Hat, Inc.
 * Copyright (c) 2003-2005 Silicon Graphics, Inc.
 *
 * This work is licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL, version 2 or later.
 * See the COPYING file in the top-level directory.
 */
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <getopt.h>
#include <libgen.h>

#include "qemu-common.h"
#include "block_int.h"
#include "cmd.h"

#define VERSION	"0.0.1"

#define CMD_NOFILE_OK   0x01

char *progname;
static BlockDriverState *bs;

static int misalign;

/*
 * Parse the pattern argument to various sub-commands.
 *
 * Because the pattern is used as an argument to memset it must evaluate
 * to an unsigned integer that fits into a single byte.
 */
static int parse_pattern(const char *arg)
{
    char *endptr = NULL;
    long pattern;

    pattern = strtol(arg, &endptr, 0);
    if (pattern < 0 || pattern > UCHAR_MAX || *endptr != '\0') {
        printf("%s is not a valid pattern byte\n", arg);
        return -1;
    }

    return pattern;
}

/*
 * Memory allocation helpers.
 *
 * Make sure memory is aligned by default, or purposefully misaligned if
 * that is specified on the command line.
 */

#define MISALIGN_OFFSET     16
static void *qemu_io_alloc(size_t len, int pattern)
{
    void *buf;

    if (misalign) {
        len += MISALIGN_OFFSET;
    }
    buf = qemu_blockalign(bs, len);
    memset(buf, pattern, len);
    if (misalign) {
        buf += MISALIGN_OFFSET;
    }
    return buf;
}

static void qemu_io_free(void *p)
{
    if (misalign) {
        p -= MISALIGN_OFFSET;
    }
    qemu_vfree(p);
}

static void dump_buffer(const void *buffer, int64_t offset, int len)
{
    int i, j;
    const uint8_t *p;

    for (i = 0, p = buffer; i < len; i += 16) {
        const uint8_t *s = p;

        printf("%08" PRIx64 ":  ", offset + i);
        for (j = 0; j < 16 && i + j < len; j++, p++) {
            printf("%02x ", *p);
        }
        printf(" ");
        for (j = 0; j < 16 && i + j < len; j++, s++) {
            if (isalnum(*s)) {
                printf("%c", *s);
            } else {
                printf(".");
            }
        }
        printf("\n");
    }
}

static void print_report(const char *op, struct timeval *t, int64_t offset,
                         int count, int total, int cnt, int Cflag)
{
    char s1[64], s2[64], ts[64];

    timestr(t, ts, sizeof(ts), Cflag ? VERBOSE_FIXED_TIME : 0);
    if (!Cflag) {
        cvtstr((double)total, s1, sizeof(s1));
        cvtstr(tdiv((double)total, *t), s2, sizeof(s2));
        printf("%s %d/%d bytes at offset %" PRId64 "\n",
               op, total, count, offset);
        printf("%s, %d ops; %s (%s/sec and %.4f ops/sec)\n",
               s1, cnt, ts, s2, tdiv((double)cnt, *t));
    } else {/* bytes,ops,time,bytes/sec,ops/sec */
        printf("%d,%d,%s,%.3f,%.3f\n",
            total, cnt, ts,
            tdiv((double)total, *t),
            tdiv((double)cnt, *t));
    }
}

/*
 * Parse multiple length statements for vectored I/O, and construct an I/O
 * vector matching it.
 */
static void *
create_iovec(QEMUIOVector *qiov, char **argv, int nr_iov, int pattern)
{
    size_t *sizes = calloc(nr_iov, sizeof(size_t));
    size_t count = 0;
    void *buf = NULL;
    void *p;
    int i;

    for (i = 0; i < nr_iov; i++) {
        char *arg = argv[i];
        int64_t len;

        len = cvtnum(arg);
        if (len < 0) {
            printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", arg);
            goto fail;
        }

        /* should be SIZE_T_MAX, but that doesn't exist */
        if (len > INT_MAX) {
            printf("too large length argument -- %s\n", arg);
            goto fail;
        }

        if (len & 0x1ff) {
            printf("length argument %" PRId64
                   " is not sector aligned\n", len);
            goto fail;
        }

        sizes[i] = len;
        count += len;
    }

    qemu_iovec_init(qiov, nr_iov);

    buf = p = qemu_io_alloc(count, pattern);

    for (i = 0; i < nr_iov; i++) {
        qemu_iovec_add(qiov, p, sizes[i]);
        p += sizes[i];
    }

fail:
    free(sizes);
    return buf;
}

static int do_read(char *buf, int64_t offset, int count, int *total)
{
    int ret;

    ret = bdrv_read(bs, offset >> 9, (uint8_t *)buf, count >> 9);
    if (ret < 0) {
        return ret;
    }
    *total = count;
    return 1;
}

static int do_write(char *buf, int64_t offset, int count, int *total)
{
    int ret;

    ret = bdrv_write(bs, offset >> 9, (uint8_t *)buf, count >> 9);
    if (ret < 0) {
        return ret;
    }
    *total = count;
    return 1;
}

static int do_pread(char *buf, int64_t offset, int count, int *total)
{
    *total = bdrv_pread(bs, offset, (uint8_t *)buf, count);
    if (*total < 0) {
        return *total;
    }
    return 1;
}

static int do_pwrite(char *buf, int64_t offset, int count, int *total)
{
    *total = bdrv_pwrite(bs, offset, (uint8_t *)buf, count);
    if (*total < 0) {
        return *total;
    }
    return 1;
}

static int do_load_vmstate(char *buf, int64_t offset, int count, int *total)
{
    *total = bdrv_load_vmstate(bs, (uint8_t *)buf, offset, count);
    if (*total < 0) {
        return *total;
    }
    return 1;
}

static int do_save_vmstate(char *buf, int64_t offset, int count, int *total)
{
    *total = bdrv_save_vmstate(bs, (uint8_t *)buf, offset, count);
    if (*total < 0) {
        return *total;
    }
    return 1;
}

#define NOT_DONE 0x7fffffff
static void aio_rw_done(void *opaque, int ret)
{
    *(int *)opaque = ret;
}

static int do_aio_readv(QEMUIOVector *qiov, int64_t offset, int *total)
{
    BlockDriverAIOCB *acb;
    int async_ret = NOT_DONE;

    acb = bdrv_aio_readv(bs, offset >> 9, qiov, qiov->size >> 9,
                         aio_rw_done, &async_ret);
    if (!acb) {
        return -EIO;
    }
    while (async_ret == NOT_DONE) {
        qemu_aio_wait();
    }

    *total = qiov->size;
    return async_ret < 0 ? async_ret : 1;
}

static int do_aio_writev(QEMUIOVector *qiov, int64_t offset, int *total)
{
    BlockDriverAIOCB *acb;
    int async_ret = NOT_DONE;

    acb = bdrv_aio_writev(bs, offset >> 9, qiov, qiov->size >> 9,
                          aio_rw_done, &async_ret);
    if (!acb) {
        return -EIO;
    }

    while (async_ret == NOT_DONE) {
        qemu_aio_wait();
    }

    *total = qiov->size;
    return async_ret < 0 ? async_ret : 1;
}

struct multiwrite_async_ret {
    int num_done;
    int error;
};

static void multiwrite_cb(void *opaque, int ret)
{
    struct multiwrite_async_ret *async_ret = opaque;

    async_ret->num_done++;
    if (ret < 0) {
        async_ret->error = ret;
    }
}

static int do_aio_multiwrite(BlockRequest* reqs, int num_reqs, int *total)
{
    int i, ret;
    struct multiwrite_async_ret async_ret = {
        .num_done = 0,
        .error = 0,
    };

    *total = 0;
    for (i = 0; i < num_reqs; i++) {
        reqs[i].cb = multiwrite_cb;
        reqs[i].opaque = &async_ret;
        *total += reqs[i].qiov->size;
    }

    ret = bdrv_aio_multiwrite(bs, reqs, num_reqs);
    if (ret < 0) {
        return ret;
    }

    while (async_ret.num_done < num_reqs) {
        qemu_aio_wait();
    }

    return async_ret.error < 0 ? async_ret.error : 1;
}

static void read_help(void)
{
    printf(
"\n"
" reads a range of bytes from the given offset\n"
"\n"
" Example:\n"
" 'read -v 512 1k' - dumps 1 kilobyte read from 512 bytes into the file\n"
"\n"
" Reads a segment of the currently open file, optionally dumping it to the\n"
" standard output stream (with -v option) for subsequent inspection.\n"
" -b, -- read from the VM state rather than the virtual disk\n"
" -C, -- report statistics in a machine parsable format\n"
" -l, -- length for pattern verification (only with -P)\n"
" -p, -- use bdrv_pread to read the file\n"
" -P, -- use a pattern to verify read data\n"
" -q, -- quiet mode, do not show I/O statistics\n"
" -s, -- start offset for pattern verification (only with -P)\n"
" -v, -- dump buffer to standard output\n"
"\n");
}

static int read_f(int argc, char **argv);

static const cmdinfo_t read_cmd = {
    .name       = "read",
    .altname    = "r",
    .cfunc      = read_f,
    .argmin     = 2,
    .argmax     = -1,
    .args       = "[-abCpqv] [-P pattern [-s off] [-l len]] off len",
    .oneline    = "reads a number of bytes at a specified offset",
    .help       = read_help,
};

static int read_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    struct timeval t1, t2;
    int Cflag = 0, pflag = 0, qflag = 0, vflag = 0;
    int Pflag = 0, sflag = 0, lflag = 0, bflag = 0;
    int c, cnt;
    char *buf;
    int64_t offset;
    int count;
    /* Some compilers get confused and warn if this is not initialized.  */
    int total = 0;
    int pattern = 0, pattern_offset = 0, pattern_count = 0;

    while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "bCl:pP:qs:v")) != EOF) {
        switch (c) {
        case 'b':
            bflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'C':
            Cflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'l':
            lflag = 1;
            pattern_count = cvtnum(optarg);
            if (pattern_count < 0) {
                printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", optarg);
                return 0;
            }
            break;
        case 'p':
            pflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'P':
            Pflag = 1;
            pattern = parse_pattern(optarg);
            if (pattern < 0) {
                return 0;
            }
            break;
        case 'q':
            qflag = 1;
            break;
        case 's':
            sflag = 1;
            pattern_offset = cvtnum(optarg);
            if (pattern_offset < 0) {
                printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", optarg);
                return 0;
            }
            break;
        case 'v':
            vflag = 1;
            break;
        default:
            return command_usage(&read_cmd);
        }
    }

    if (optind != argc - 2) {
        return command_usage(&read_cmd);
    }

    if (bflag && pflag) {
        printf("-b and -p cannot be specified at the same time\n");
        return 0;
    }

    offset = cvtnum(argv[optind]);
    if (offset < 0) {
        printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", argv[optind]);
        return 0;
    }

    optind++;
    count = cvtnum(argv[optind]);
    if (count < 0) {
        printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", argv[optind]);
        return 0;
    }

    if (!Pflag && (lflag || sflag)) {
        return command_usage(&read_cmd);
    }

    if (!lflag) {
        pattern_count = count - pattern_offset;
    }

    if ((pattern_count < 0) || (pattern_count + pattern_offset > count))  {
        printf("pattern verfication range exceeds end of read data\n");
        return 0;
    }

    if (!pflag) {
        if (offset & 0x1ff) {
            printf("offset %" PRId64 " is not sector aligned\n",
                   offset);
            return 0;
        }
        if (count & 0x1ff) {
            printf("count %d is not sector aligned\n",
                   count);
            return 0;
        }
    }

    buf = qemu_io_alloc(count, 0xab);

    gettimeofday(&t1, NULL);
    if (pflag) {
        cnt = do_pread(buf, offset, count, &total);
    } else if (bflag) {
        cnt = do_load_vmstate(buf, offset, count, &total);
    } else {
        cnt = do_read(buf, offset, count, &total);
    }
    gettimeofday(&t2, NULL);

    if (cnt < 0) {
        printf("read failed: %s\n", strerror(-cnt));
        goto out;
    }

    if (Pflag) {
        void *cmp_buf = malloc(pattern_count);
        memset(cmp_buf, pattern, pattern_count);
        if (memcmp(buf + pattern_offset, cmp_buf, pattern_count)) {
            printf("Pattern verification failed at offset %"
                   PRId64 ", %d bytes\n",
                   offset + pattern_offset, pattern_count);
        }
        free(cmp_buf);
    }

    if (qflag) {
        goto out;
    }

    if (vflag) {
        dump_buffer(buf, offset, count);
    }

    /* Finally, report back -- -C gives a parsable format */
    t2 = tsub(t2, t1);
    print_report("read", &t2, offset, count, total, cnt, Cflag);

out:
    qemu_io_free(buf);

    return 0;
}

static void readv_help(void)
{
    printf(
"\n"
" reads a range of bytes from the given offset into multiple buffers\n"
"\n"
" Example:\n"
" 'readv -v 512 1k 1k ' - dumps 2 kilobytes read from 512 bytes into the file\n"
"\n"
" Reads a segment of the currently open file, optionally dumping it to the\n"
" standard output stream (with -v option) for subsequent inspection.\n"
" Uses multiple iovec buffers if more than one byte range is specified.\n"
" -C, -- report statistics in a machine parsable format\n"
" -P, -- use a pattern to verify read data\n"
" -v, -- dump buffer to standard output\n"
" -q, -- quiet mode, do not show I/O statistics\n"
"\n");
}

static int readv_f(int argc, char **argv);

static const cmdinfo_t readv_cmd = {
    .name       = "readv",
    .cfunc      = readv_f,
    .argmin     = 2,
    .argmax     = -1,
    .args       = "[-Cqv] [-P pattern ] off len [len..]",
    .oneline    = "reads a number of bytes at a specified offset",
    .help       = readv_help,
};

static int readv_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    struct timeval t1, t2;
    int Cflag = 0, qflag = 0, vflag = 0;
    int c, cnt;
    char *buf;
    int64_t offset;
    /* Some compilers get confused and warn if this is not initialized.  */
    int total = 0;
    int nr_iov;
    QEMUIOVector qiov;
    int pattern = 0;
    int Pflag = 0;

    while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "CP:qv")) != EOF) {
        switch (c) {
        case 'C':
            Cflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'P':
            Pflag = 1;
            pattern = parse_pattern(optarg);
            if (pattern < 0) {
                return 0;
            }
            break;
        case 'q':
            qflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'v':
            vflag = 1;
            break;
        default:
            return command_usage(&readv_cmd);
        }
    }

    if (optind > argc - 2) {
        return command_usage(&readv_cmd);
    }


    offset = cvtnum(argv[optind]);
    if (offset < 0) {
        printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", argv[optind]);
        return 0;
    }
    optind++;

    if (offset & 0x1ff) {
        printf("offset %" PRId64 " is not sector aligned\n",
               offset);
        return 0;
    }

    nr_iov = argc - optind;
    buf = create_iovec(&qiov, &argv[optind], nr_iov, 0xab);
    if (buf == NULL) {
        return 0;
    }

    gettimeofday(&t1, NULL);
    cnt = do_aio_readv(&qiov, offset, &total);
    gettimeofday(&t2, NULL);

    if (cnt < 0) {
        printf("readv failed: %s\n", strerror(-cnt));
        goto out;
    }

    if (Pflag) {
        void *cmp_buf = malloc(qiov.size);
        memset(cmp_buf, pattern, qiov.size);
        if (memcmp(buf, cmp_buf, qiov.size)) {
            printf("Pattern verification failed at offset %"
                   PRId64 ", %zd bytes\n", offset, qiov.size);
        }
        free(cmp_buf);
    }

    if (qflag) {
        goto out;
    }

    if (vflag) {
        dump_buffer(buf, offset, qiov.size);
    }

    /* Finally, report back -- -C gives a parsable format */
    t2 = tsub(t2, t1);
    print_report("read", &t2, offset, qiov.size, total, cnt, Cflag);

out:
    qemu_io_free(buf);
    return 0;
}

static void write_help(void)
{
    printf(
"\n"
" writes a range of bytes from the given offset\n"
"\n"
" Example:\n"
" 'write 512 1k' - writes 1 kilobyte at 512 bytes into the open file\n"
"\n"
" Writes into a segment of the currently open file, using a buffer\n"
" filled with a set pattern (0xcdcdcdcd).\n"
" -b, -- write to the VM state rather than the virtual disk\n"
" -p, -- use bdrv_pwrite to write the file\n"
" -P, -- use different pattern to fill file\n"
" -C, -- report statistics in a machine parsable format\n"
" -q, -- quiet mode, do not show I/O statistics\n"
"\n");
}

static int write_f(int argc, char **argv);

static const cmdinfo_t write_cmd = {
    .name       = "write",
    .altname    = "w",
    .cfunc      = write_f,
    .argmin     = 2,
    .argmax     = -1,
    .args       = "[-abCpq] [-P pattern ] off len",
    .oneline    = "writes a number of bytes at a specified offset",
    .help       = write_help,
};

static int write_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    struct timeval t1, t2;
    int Cflag = 0, pflag = 0, qflag = 0, bflag = 0;
    int c, cnt;
    char *buf;
    int64_t offset;
    int count;
    /* Some compilers get confused and warn if this is not initialized.  */
    int total = 0;
    int pattern = 0xcd;

    while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "bCpP:q")) != EOF) {
        switch (c) {
        case 'b':
            bflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'C':
            Cflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'p':
            pflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'P':
            pattern = parse_pattern(optarg);
            if (pattern < 0) {
                return 0;
            }
            break;
        case 'q':
            qflag = 1;
            break;
        default:
            return command_usage(&write_cmd);
        }
    }

    if (optind != argc - 2) {
        return command_usage(&write_cmd);
    }

    if (bflag && pflag) {
        printf("-b and -p cannot be specified at the same time\n");
        return 0;
    }

    offset = cvtnum(argv[optind]);
    if (offset < 0) {
        printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", argv[optind]);
        return 0;
    }

    optind++;
    count = cvtnum(argv[optind]);
    if (count < 0) {
        printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", argv[optind]);
        return 0;
    }

    if (!pflag) {
        if (offset & 0x1ff) {
            printf("offset %" PRId64 " is not sector aligned\n",
                   offset);
            return 0;
        }

        if (count & 0x1ff) {
            printf("count %d is not sector aligned\n",
                   count);
            return 0;
        }
    }

    buf = qemu_io_alloc(count, pattern);

    gettimeofday(&t1, NULL);
    if (pflag) {
        cnt = do_pwrite(buf, offset, count, &total);
    } else if (bflag) {
        cnt = do_save_vmstate(buf, offset, count, &total);
    } else {
        cnt = do_write(buf, offset, count, &total);
    }
    gettimeofday(&t2, NULL);

    if (cnt < 0) {
        printf("write failed: %s\n", strerror(-cnt));
        goto out;
    }

    if (qflag) {
        goto out;
    }

    /* Finally, report back -- -C gives a parsable format */
    t2 = tsub(t2, t1);
    print_report("wrote", &t2, offset, count, total, cnt, Cflag);

out:
    qemu_io_free(buf);

    return 0;
}

static void
writev_help(void)
{
    printf(
"\n"
" writes a range of bytes from the given offset source from multiple buffers\n"
"\n"
" Example:\n"
" 'write 512 1k 1k' - writes 2 kilobytes at 512 bytes into the open file\n"
"\n"
" Writes into a segment of the currently open file, using a buffer\n"
" filled with a set pattern (0xcdcdcdcd).\n"
" -P, -- use different pattern to fill file\n"
" -C, -- report statistics in a machine parsable format\n"
" -q, -- quiet mode, do not show I/O statistics\n"
"\n");
}

static int writev_f(int argc, char **argv);

static const cmdinfo_t writev_cmd = {
    .name       = "writev",
    .cfunc      = writev_f,
    .argmin     = 2,
    .argmax     = -1,
    .args       = "[-Cq] [-P pattern ] off len [len..]",
    .oneline    = "writes a number of bytes at a specified offset",
    .help       = writev_help,
};

static int writev_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    struct timeval t1, t2;
    int Cflag = 0, qflag = 0;
    int c, cnt;
    char *buf;
    int64_t offset;
    /* Some compilers get confused and warn if this is not initialized.  */
    int total = 0;
    int nr_iov;
    int pattern = 0xcd;
    QEMUIOVector qiov;

    while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "CqP:")) != EOF) {
        switch (c) {
        case 'C':
            Cflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'q':
            qflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'P':
            pattern = parse_pattern(optarg);
            if (pattern < 0) {
                return 0;
            }
            break;
        default:
            return command_usage(&writev_cmd);
        }
    }

    if (optind > argc - 2) {
        return command_usage(&writev_cmd);
    }

    offset = cvtnum(argv[optind]);
    if (offset < 0) {
        printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", argv[optind]);
        return 0;
    }
    optind++;

    if (offset & 0x1ff) {
        printf("offset %" PRId64 " is not sector aligned\n",
               offset);
        return 0;
    }

    nr_iov = argc - optind;
    buf = create_iovec(&qiov, &argv[optind], nr_iov, pattern);
    if (buf == NULL) {
        return 0;
    }

    gettimeofday(&t1, NULL);
    cnt = do_aio_writev(&qiov, offset, &total);
    gettimeofday(&t2, NULL);

    if (cnt < 0) {
        printf("writev failed: %s\n", strerror(-cnt));
        goto out;
    }

    if (qflag) {
        goto out;
    }

    /* Finally, report back -- -C gives a parsable format */
    t2 = tsub(t2, t1);
    print_report("wrote", &t2, offset, qiov.size, total, cnt, Cflag);
out:
    qemu_io_free(buf);
    return 0;
}

static void multiwrite_help(void)
{
    printf(
"\n"
" writes a range of bytes from the given offset source from multiple buffers,\n"
" in a batch of requests that may be merged by qemu\n"
"\n"
" Example:\n"
" 'multiwrite 512 1k 1k ; 4k 1k'\n"
"  writes 2 kB at 512 bytes and 1 kB at 4 kB into the open file\n"
"\n"
" Writes into a segment of the currently open file, using a buffer\n"
" filled with a set pattern (0xcdcdcdcd). The pattern byte is increased\n"
" by one for each request contained in the multiwrite command.\n"
" -P, -- use different pattern to fill file\n"
" -C, -- report statistics in a machine parsable format\n"
" -q, -- quiet mode, do not show I/O statistics\n"
"\n");
}

static int multiwrite_f(int argc, char **argv);

static const cmdinfo_t multiwrite_cmd = {
    .name       = "multiwrite",
    .cfunc      = multiwrite_f,
    .argmin     = 2,
    .argmax     = -1,
    .args       = "[-Cq] [-P pattern ] off len [len..] [; off len [len..]..]",
    .oneline    = "issues multiple write requests at once",
    .help       = multiwrite_help,
};

static int multiwrite_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    struct timeval t1, t2;
    int Cflag = 0, qflag = 0;
    int c, cnt;
    char **buf;
    int64_t offset, first_offset = 0;
    /* Some compilers get confused and warn if this is not initialized.  */
    int total = 0;
    int nr_iov;
    int nr_reqs;
    int pattern = 0xcd;
    QEMUIOVector *qiovs;
    int i;
    BlockRequest *reqs;

    while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "CqP:")) != EOF) {
        switch (c) {
        case 'C':
            Cflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'q':
            qflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'P':
            pattern = parse_pattern(optarg);
            if (pattern < 0) {
                return 0;
            }
            break;
        default:
            return command_usage(&writev_cmd);
        }
    }

    if (optind > argc - 2) {
        return command_usage(&writev_cmd);
    }

    nr_reqs = 1;
    for (i = optind; i < argc; i++) {
        if (!strcmp(argv[i], ";")) {
            nr_reqs++;
        }
    }

    reqs = g_malloc0(nr_reqs * sizeof(*reqs));
    buf = g_malloc0(nr_reqs * sizeof(*buf));
    qiovs = g_malloc(nr_reqs * sizeof(*qiovs));

    for (i = 0; i < nr_reqs && optind < argc; i++) {
        int j;

        /* Read the offset of the request */
        offset = cvtnum(argv[optind]);
        if (offset < 0) {
            printf("non-numeric offset argument -- %s\n", argv[optind]);
            goto out;
        }
        optind++;

        if (offset & 0x1ff) {
            printf("offset %lld is not sector aligned\n",
                   (long long)offset);
            goto out;
        }

        if (i == 0) {
            first_offset = offset;
        }

        /* Read lengths for qiov entries */
        for (j = optind; j < argc; j++) {
            if (!strcmp(argv[j], ";")) {
                break;
            }
        }

        nr_iov = j - optind;

        /* Build request */
        buf[i] = create_iovec(&qiovs[i], &argv[optind], nr_iov, pattern);
        if (buf[i] == NULL) {
            goto out;
        }

        reqs[i].qiov = &qiovs[i];
        reqs[i].sector = offset >> 9;
        reqs[i].nb_sectors = reqs[i].qiov->size >> 9;

        optind = j + 1;

        pattern++;
    }

    /* If there were empty requests at the end, ignore them */
    nr_reqs = i;

    gettimeofday(&t1, NULL);
    cnt = do_aio_multiwrite(reqs, nr_reqs, &total);
    gettimeofday(&t2, NULL);

    if (cnt < 0) {
        printf("aio_multiwrite failed: %s\n", strerror(-cnt));
        goto out;
    }

    if (qflag) {
        goto out;
    }

    /* Finally, report back -- -C gives a parsable format */
    t2 = tsub(t2, t1);
    print_report("wrote", &t2, first_offset, total, total, cnt, Cflag);
out:
    for (i = 0; i < nr_reqs; i++) {
        qemu_io_free(buf[i]);
        if (reqs[i].qiov != NULL) {
            qemu_iovec_destroy(&qiovs[i]);
        }
    }
    g_free(buf);
    g_free(reqs);
    g_free(qiovs);
    return 0;
}

struct aio_ctx {
    QEMUIOVector qiov;
    int64_t offset;
    char *buf;
    int qflag;
    int vflag;
    int Cflag;
    int Pflag;
    int pattern;
    struct timeval t1;
};

static void aio_write_done(void *opaque, int ret)
{
    struct aio_ctx *ctx = opaque;
    struct timeval t2;

    gettimeofday(&t2, NULL);


    if (ret < 0) {
        printf("aio_write failed: %s\n", strerror(-ret));
        goto out;
    }

    if (ctx->qflag) {
        goto out;
    }

    /* Finally, report back -- -C gives a parsable format */
    t2 = tsub(t2, ctx->t1);
    print_report("wrote", &t2, ctx->offset, ctx->qiov.size,
                 ctx->qiov.size, 1, ctx->Cflag);
out:
    qemu_io_free(ctx->buf);
    free(ctx);
}

static void aio_read_done(void *opaque, int ret)
{
    struct aio_ctx *ctx = opaque;
    struct timeval t2;

    gettimeofday(&t2, NULL);

    if (ret < 0) {
        printf("readv failed: %s\n", strerror(-ret));
        goto out;
    }

    if (ctx->Pflag) {
        void *cmp_buf = malloc(ctx->qiov.size);

        memset(cmp_buf, ctx->pattern, ctx->qiov.size);
        if (memcmp(ctx->buf, cmp_buf, ctx->qiov.size)) {
            printf("Pattern verification failed at offset %"
                   PRId64 ", %zd bytes\n", ctx->offset, ctx->qiov.size);
        }
        free(cmp_buf);
    }

    if (ctx->qflag) {
        goto out;
    }

    if (ctx->vflag) {
        dump_buffer(ctx->buf, ctx->offset, ctx->qiov.size);
    }

    /* Finally, report back -- -C gives a parsable format */
    t2 = tsub(t2, ctx->t1);
    print_report("read", &t2, ctx->offset, ctx->qiov.size,
                 ctx->qiov.size, 1, ctx->Cflag);
out:
    qemu_io_free(ctx->buf);
    free(ctx);
}

static void aio_read_help(void)
{
    printf(
"\n"
" asynchronously reads a range of bytes from the given offset\n"
"\n"
" Example:\n"
" 'aio_read -v 512 1k 1k ' - dumps 2 kilobytes read from 512 bytes into the file\n"
"\n"
" Reads a segment of the currently open file, optionally dumping it to the\n"
" standard output stream (with -v option) for subsequent inspection.\n"
" The read is performed asynchronously and the aio_flush command must be\n"
" used to ensure all outstanding aio requests have been completed\n"
" -C, -- report statistics in a machine parsable format\n"
" -P, -- use a pattern to verify read data\n"
" -v, -- dump buffer to standard output\n"
" -q, -- quiet mode, do not show I/O statistics\n"
"\n");
}

static int aio_read_f(int argc, char **argv);

static const cmdinfo_t aio_read_cmd = {
    .name       = "aio_read",
    .cfunc      = aio_read_f,
    .argmin     = 2,
    .argmax     = -1,
    .args       = "[-Cqv] [-P pattern ] off len [len..]",
    .oneline    = "asynchronously reads a number of bytes",
    .help       = aio_read_help,
};

static int aio_read_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int nr_iov, c;
    struct aio_ctx *ctx = calloc(1, sizeof(struct aio_ctx));
    BlockDriverAIOCB *acb;

    while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "CP:qv")) != EOF) {
        switch (c) {
        case 'C':
            ctx->Cflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'P':
            ctx->Pflag = 1;
            ctx->pattern = parse_pattern(optarg);
            if (ctx->pattern < 0) {
                free(ctx);
                return 0;
            }
            break;
        case 'q':
            ctx->qflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'v':
            ctx->vflag = 1;
            break;
        default:
            free(ctx);
            return command_usage(&aio_read_cmd);
        }
    }

    if (optind > argc - 2) {
        free(ctx);
        return command_usage(&aio_read_cmd);
    }

    ctx->offset = cvtnum(argv[optind]);
    if (ctx->offset < 0) {
        printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", argv[optind]);
        free(ctx);
        return 0;
    }
    optind++;

    if (ctx->offset & 0x1ff) {
        printf("offset %" PRId64 " is not sector aligned\n",
               ctx->offset);
        free(ctx);
        return 0;
    }

    nr_iov = argc - optind;
    ctx->buf = create_iovec(&ctx->qiov, &argv[optind], nr_iov, 0xab);
    if (ctx->buf == NULL) {
        free(ctx);
        return 0;
    }

    gettimeofday(&ctx->t1, NULL);
    acb = bdrv_aio_readv(bs, ctx->offset >> 9, &ctx->qiov,
                         ctx->qiov.size >> 9, aio_read_done, ctx);
    if (!acb) {
        free(ctx->buf);
        free(ctx);
        return -EIO;
    }

    return 0;
}

static void aio_write_help(void)
{
    printf(
"\n"
" asynchronously writes a range of bytes from the given offset source\n"
" from multiple buffers\n"
"\n"
" Example:\n"
" 'aio_write 512 1k 1k' - writes 2 kilobytes at 512 bytes into the open file\n"
"\n"
" Writes into a segment of the currently open file, using a buffer\n"
" filled with a set pattern (0xcdcdcdcd).\n"
" The write is performed asynchronously and the aio_flush command must be\n"
" used to ensure all outstanding aio requests have been completed\n"
" -P, -- use different pattern to fill file\n"
" -C, -- report statistics in a machine parsable format\n"
" -q, -- quiet mode, do not show I/O statistics\n"
"\n");
}

static int aio_write_f(int argc, char **argv);

static const cmdinfo_t aio_write_cmd = {
    .name       = "aio_write",
    .cfunc      = aio_write_f,
    .argmin     = 2,
    .argmax     = -1,
    .args       = "[-Cq] [-P pattern ] off len [len..]",
    .oneline    = "asynchronously writes a number of bytes",
    .help       = aio_write_help,
};

static int aio_write_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int nr_iov, c;
    int pattern = 0xcd;
    struct aio_ctx *ctx = calloc(1, sizeof(struct aio_ctx));
    BlockDriverAIOCB *acb;

    while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "CqP:")) != EOF) {
        switch (c) {
        case 'C':
            ctx->Cflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'q':
            ctx->qflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'P':
            pattern = parse_pattern(optarg);
            if (pattern < 0) {
                free(ctx);
                return 0;
            }
            break;
        default:
            free(ctx);
            return command_usage(&aio_write_cmd);
        }
    }

    if (optind > argc - 2) {
        free(ctx);
        return command_usage(&aio_write_cmd);
    }

    ctx->offset = cvtnum(argv[optind]);
    if (ctx->offset < 0) {
        printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", argv[optind]);
        free(ctx);
        return 0;
    }
    optind++;

    if (ctx->offset & 0x1ff) {
        printf("offset %" PRId64 " is not sector aligned\n",
               ctx->offset);
        free(ctx);
        return 0;
    }

    nr_iov = argc - optind;
    ctx->buf = create_iovec(&ctx->qiov, &argv[optind], nr_iov, pattern);
    if (ctx->buf == NULL) {
        free(ctx);
        return 0;
    }

    gettimeofday(&ctx->t1, NULL);
    acb = bdrv_aio_writev(bs, ctx->offset >> 9, &ctx->qiov,
                          ctx->qiov.size >> 9, aio_write_done, ctx);
    if (!acb) {
        free(ctx->buf);
        free(ctx);
        return -EIO;
    }

    return 0;
}

static int aio_flush_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    qemu_aio_flush();
    return 0;
}

static const cmdinfo_t aio_flush_cmd = {
    .name       = "aio_flush",
    .cfunc      = aio_flush_f,
    .oneline    = "completes all outstanding aio requests"
};

static int flush_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    bdrv_flush(bs);
    return 0;
}

static const cmdinfo_t flush_cmd = {
    .name       = "flush",
    .altname    = "f",
    .cfunc      = flush_f,
    .oneline    = "flush all in-core file state to disk",
};

static int truncate_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int64_t offset;
    int ret;

    offset = cvtnum(argv[1]);
    if (offset < 0) {
        printf("non-numeric truncate argument -- %s\n", argv[1]);
        return 0;
    }

    ret = bdrv_truncate(bs, offset);
    if (ret < 0) {
        printf("truncate: %s\n", strerror(-ret));
        return 0;
    }

    return 0;
}

static const cmdinfo_t truncate_cmd = {
    .name       = "truncate",
    .altname    = "t",
    .cfunc      = truncate_f,
    .argmin     = 1,
    .argmax     = 1,
    .args       = "off",
    .oneline    = "truncates the current file at the given offset",
};

static int length_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int64_t size;
    char s1[64];

    size = bdrv_getlength(bs);
    if (size < 0) {
        printf("getlength: %s\n", strerror(-size));
        return 0;
    }

    cvtstr(size, s1, sizeof(s1));
    printf("%s\n", s1);
    return 0;
}


static const cmdinfo_t length_cmd = {
    .name   = "length",
    .altname    = "l",
    .cfunc      = length_f,
    .oneline    = "gets the length of the current file",
};


static int info_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    BlockDriverInfo bdi;
    char s1[64], s2[64];
    int ret;

    if (bs->drv && bs->drv->format_name) {
        printf("format name: %s\n", bs->drv->format_name);
    }
    if (bs->drv && bs->drv->protocol_name) {
        printf("format name: %s\n", bs->drv->protocol_name);
    }

    ret = bdrv_get_info(bs, &bdi);
    if (ret) {
        return 0;
    }

    cvtstr(bdi.cluster_size, s1, sizeof(s1));
    cvtstr(bdi.vm_state_offset, s2, sizeof(s2));

    printf("cluster size: %s\n", s1);
    printf("vm state offset: %s\n", s2);

    return 0;
}



static const cmdinfo_t info_cmd = {
    .name       = "info",
    .altname    = "i",
    .cfunc      = info_f,
    .oneline    = "prints information about the current file",
};

static void discard_help(void)
{
    printf(
"\n"
" discards a range of bytes from the given offset\n"
"\n"
" Example:\n"
" 'discard 512 1k' - discards 1 kilobyte from 512 bytes into the file\n"
"\n"
" Discards a segment of the currently open file.\n"
" -C, -- report statistics in a machine parsable format\n"
" -q, -- quiet mode, do not show I/O statistics\n"
"\n");
}

static int discard_f(int argc, char **argv);

static const cmdinfo_t discard_cmd = {
    .name       = "discard",
    .altname    = "d",
    .cfunc      = discard_f,
    .argmin     = 2,
    .argmax     = -1,
    .args       = "[-Cq] off len",
    .oneline    = "discards a number of bytes at a specified offset",
    .help       = discard_help,
};

static int discard_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    struct timeval t1, t2;
    int Cflag = 0, qflag = 0;
    int c, ret;
    int64_t offset;
    int count;

    while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "Cq")) != EOF) {
        switch (c) {
        case 'C':
            Cflag = 1;
            break;
        case 'q':
            qflag = 1;
            break;
        default:
            return command_usage(&discard_cmd);
        }
    }

    if (optind != argc - 2) {
        return command_usage(&discard_cmd);
    }

    offset = cvtnum(argv[optind]);
    if (offset < 0) {
        printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", argv[optind]);
        return 0;
    }

    optind++;
    count = cvtnum(argv[optind]);
    if (count < 0) {
        printf("non-numeric length argument -- %s\n", argv[optind]);
        return 0;
    }

    gettimeofday(&t1, NULL);
    ret = bdrv_discard(bs, offset >> BDRV_SECTOR_BITS,
                       count >> BDRV_SECTOR_BITS);
    gettimeofday(&t2, NULL);

    if (ret < 0) {
        printf("discard failed: %s\n", strerror(-ret));
        goto out;
    }

    /* Finally, report back -- -C gives a parsable format */
    if (!qflag) {
        t2 = tsub(t2, t1);
        print_report("discard", &t2, offset, count, count, 1, Cflag);
    }

out:
    return 0;
}

static int alloc_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int64_t offset;
    int nb_sectors, remaining;
    char s1[64];
    int num, sum_alloc;
    int ret;

    offset = cvtnum(argv[1]);
    if (offset & 0x1ff) {
        printf("offset %" PRId64 " is not sector aligned\n",
               offset);
        return 0;
    }

    if (argc == 3) {
        nb_sectors = cvtnum(argv[2]);
    } else {
        nb_sectors = 1;
    }

    remaining = nb_sectors;
    sum_alloc = 0;
    while (remaining) {
        ret = bdrv_is_allocated(bs, offset >> 9, nb_sectors, &num);
        remaining -= num;
        if (ret) {
            sum_alloc += num;
        }
    }

    cvtstr(offset, s1, sizeof(s1));

    printf("%d/%d sectors allocated at offset %s\n",
           sum_alloc, nb_sectors, s1);
    return 0;
}

static const cmdinfo_t alloc_cmd = {
    .name       = "alloc",
    .altname    = "a",
    .argmin     = 1,
    .argmax     = 2,
    .cfunc      = alloc_f,
    .args       = "off [sectors]",
    .oneline    = "checks if a sector is present in the file",
};

static int map_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int64_t offset;
    int64_t nb_sectors;
    char s1[64];
    int num, num_checked;
    int ret;
    const char *retstr;

    offset = 0;
    nb_sectors = bs->total_sectors;

    do {
        num_checked = MIN(nb_sectors, INT_MAX);
        ret = bdrv_is_allocated(bs, offset, num_checked, &num);
        retstr = ret ? "    allocated" : "not allocated";
        cvtstr(offset << 9ULL, s1, sizeof(s1));
        printf("[% 24" PRId64 "] % 8d/% 8d sectors %s at offset %s (%d)\n",
               offset << 9ULL, num, num_checked, retstr, s1, ret);

        offset += num;
        nb_sectors -= num;
    } while (offset < bs->total_sectors);

    return 0;
}

static const cmdinfo_t map_cmd = {
       .name           = "map",
       .argmin         = 0,
       .argmax         = 0,
       .cfunc          = map_f,
       .args           = "",
       .oneline        = "prints the allocated areas of a file",
};


static int close_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    bdrv_delete(bs);
    bs = NULL;
    return 0;
}

static const cmdinfo_t close_cmd = {
    .name       = "close",
    .altname    = "c",
    .cfunc      = close_f,
    .oneline    = "close the current open file",
};

static int openfile(char *name, int flags, int growable)
{
    if (bs) {
        fprintf(stderr, "file open already, try 'help close'\n");
        return 1;
    }

    if (growable) {
        if (bdrv_file_open(&bs, name, flags)) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: can't open device %s\n", progname, name);
            return 1;
        }
    } else {
        bs = bdrv_new("hda");

        if (bdrv_open(bs, name, flags, NULL) < 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: can't open device %s\n", progname, name);
            bdrv_delete(bs);
            bs = NULL;
            return 1;
        }
    }

    return 0;
}

static void open_help(void)
{
    printf(
"\n"
" opens a new file in the requested mode\n"
"\n"
" Example:\n"
" 'open -Cn /tmp/data' - creates/opens data file read-write and uncached\n"
"\n"
" Opens a file for subsequent use by all of the other qemu-io commands.\n"
" -r, -- open file read-only\n"
" -s, -- use snapshot file\n"
" -n, -- disable host cache\n"
" -g, -- allow file to grow (only applies to protocols)"
"\n");
}

static int open_f(int argc, char **argv);

static const cmdinfo_t open_cmd = {
    .name       = "open",
    .altname    = "o",
    .cfunc      = open_f,
    .argmin     = 1,
    .argmax     = -1,
    .flags      = CMD_NOFILE_OK,
    .args       = "[-Crsn] [path]",
    .oneline    = "open the file specified by path",
    .help       = open_help,
};

static int open_f(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int flags = 0;
    int readonly = 0;
    int growable = 0;
    int c;

    while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "snrg")) != EOF) {
        switch (c) {
        case 's':
            flags |= BDRV_O_SNAPSHOT;
            break;
        case 'n':
            flags |= BDRV_O_NOCACHE | BDRV_O_CACHE_WB;
            break;
        case 'r':
            readonly = 1;
            break;
        case 'g':
            growable = 1;
            break;
        default:
            return command_usage(&open_cmd);
        }
    }

    if (!readonly) {
        flags |= BDRV_O_RDWR;
    }

    if (optind != argc - 1) {
        return command_usage(&open_cmd);
    }

    return openfile(argv[optind], flags, growable);
}

static int init_args_command(int index)
{
    /* only one device allowed so far */
    if (index >= 1) {
        return 0;
    }
    return ++index;
}

static int init_check_command(const cmdinfo_t *ct)
{
    if (ct->flags & CMD_FLAG_GLOBAL) {
        return 1;
    }
    if (!(ct->flags & CMD_NOFILE_OK) && !bs) {
        fprintf(stderr, "no file open, try 'help open'\n");
        return 0;
    }
    return 1;
}

static void usage(const char *name)
{
    printf(
"Usage: %s [-h] [-V] [-rsnm] [-c cmd] ... [file]\n"
"QEMU Disk exerciser\n"
"\n"
"  -c, --cmd            command to execute\n"
"  -r, --read-only      export read-only\n"
"  -s, --snapshot       use snapshot file\n"
"  -n, --nocache        disable host cache\n"
"  -g, --growable       allow file to grow (only applies to protocols)\n"
"  -m, --misalign       misalign allocations for O_DIRECT\n"
"  -k, --native-aio     use kernel AIO implementation (on Linux only)\n"
"  -h, --help           display this help and exit\n"
"  -V, --version        output version information and exit\n"
"\n",
    name);
}


int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int readonly = 0;
    int growable = 0;
    const char *sopt = "hVc:rsnmgk";
    const struct option lopt[] = {
        { "help", 0, NULL, 'h' },
        { "version", 0, NULL, 'V' },
        { "offset", 1, NULL, 'o' },
        { "cmd", 1, NULL, 'c' },
        { "read-only", 0, NULL, 'r' },
        { "snapshot", 0, NULL, 's' },
        { "nocache", 0, NULL, 'n' },
        { "misalign", 0, NULL, 'm' },
        { "growable", 0, NULL, 'g' },
        { "native-aio", 0, NULL, 'k' },
        { NULL, 0, NULL, 0 }
    };
    int c;
    int opt_index = 0;
    int flags = 0;

    progname = basename(argv[0]);

    while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, sopt, lopt, &opt_index)) != -1) {
        switch (c) {
        case 's':
            flags |= BDRV_O_SNAPSHOT;
            break;
        case 'n':
            flags |= BDRV_O_NOCACHE | BDRV_O_CACHE_WB;
            break;
        case 'c':
            add_user_command(optarg);
            break;
        case 'r':
            readonly = 1;
            break;
        case 'm':
            misalign = 1;
            break;
        case 'g':
            growable = 1;
            break;
        case 'k':
            flags |= BDRV_O_NATIVE_AIO;
            break;
        case 'V':
            printf("%s version %s\n", progname, VERSION);
            exit(0);
        case 'h':
            usage(progname);
            exit(0);
        default:
            usage(progname);
            exit(1);
        }
    }

    if ((argc - optind) > 1) {
        usage(progname);
        exit(1);
    }

    bdrv_init();

    /* initialize commands */
    quit_init();
    help_init();
    add_command(&open_cmd);
    add_command(&close_cmd);
    add_command(&read_cmd);
    add_command(&readv_cmd);
    add_command(&write_cmd);
    add_command(&writev_cmd);
    add_command(&multiwrite_cmd);
    add_command(&aio_read_cmd);
    add_command(&aio_write_cmd);
    add_command(&aio_flush_cmd);
    add_command(&flush_cmd);
    add_command(&truncate_cmd);
    add_command(&length_cmd);
    add_command(&info_cmd);
    add_command(&discard_cmd);
    add_command(&alloc_cmd);
    add_command(&map_cmd);

    add_args_command(init_args_command);
    add_check_command(init_check_command);

    /* open the device */
    if (!readonly) {
        flags |= BDRV_O_RDWR;
    }

    if ((argc - optind) == 1) {
        openfile(argv[optind], flags, growable);
    }
    command_loop();

    /*
     * Make sure all outstanding requests get flushed the program exits.
     */
    qemu_aio_flush();

    if (bs) {
        bdrv_delete(bs);
    }
    return 0;
}

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