Annotation of qemu/qemu-options.hx, revision 1.1.1.3

1.1       root        1: HXCOMM Use DEFHEADING() to define headings in both help text and texi
                      2: HXCOMM Text between STEXI and ETEXI are copied to texi version and
                      3: HXCOMM discarded from C version
                      4: HXCOMM DEF(option, HAS_ARG/0, opt_enum, opt_help) is used to construct
                      5: HXCOMM option structures, enums and help message.
                      6: HXCOMM HXCOMM can be used for comments, discarded from both texi and C
                      7: 
                      8: DEFHEADING(Standard options:)
                      9: STEXI
                     10: @table @option
                     11: ETEXI
                     12: 
                     13: DEF("help", 0, QEMU_OPTION_h,
                     14:     "-h or -help     display this help and exit\n")
                     15: STEXI
                     16: @item -h
                     17: Display help and exit
                     18: ETEXI
                     19: 
                     20: DEF("version", 0, QEMU_OPTION_version,
                     21:     "-version        display version information and exit\n")
                     22: STEXI
                     23: @item -version
                     24: Display version information and exit
                     25: ETEXI
                     26: 
                     27: DEF("M", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_M,
                     28:     "-M machine      select emulated machine (-M ? for list)\n")
                     29: STEXI
                     30: @item -M @var{machine}
                     31: Select the emulated @var{machine} (@code{-M ?} for list)
                     32: ETEXI
                     33: 
                     34: DEF("cpu", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_cpu,
                     35:     "-cpu cpu        select CPU (-cpu ? for list)\n")
                     36: STEXI
                     37: @item -cpu @var{model}
                     38: Select CPU model (-cpu ? for list and additional feature selection)
                     39: ETEXI
                     40: 
                     41: DEF("smp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_smp,
1.1.1.2   root       42:     "-smp n[,maxcpus=cpus][,cores=cores][,threads=threads][,sockets=sockets]\n"
                     43:     "                set the number of CPUs to 'n' [default=1]\n"
                     44:     "                maxcpus= maximum number of total cpus, including\n"
                     45:     "                  offline CPUs for hotplug etc.\n"
                     46:     "                cores= number of CPU cores on one socket\n"
                     47:     "                threads= number of threads on one CPU core\n"
                     48:     "                sockets= number of discrete sockets in the system\n")
1.1       root       49: STEXI
1.1.1.2   root       50: @item -smp @var{n}[,cores=@var{cores}][,threads=@var{threads}][,sockets=@var{sockets}][,maxcpus=@var{maxcpus}]
1.1       root       51: Simulate an SMP system with @var{n} CPUs. On the PC target, up to 255
                     52: CPUs are supported. On Sparc32 target, Linux limits the number of usable CPUs
                     53: to 4.
1.1.1.2   root       54: For the PC target, the number of @var{cores} per socket, the number
                     55: of @var{threads} per cores and the total number of @var{sockets} can be
                     56: specified. Missing values will be computed. If any on the three values is
                     57: given, the total number of CPUs @var{n} can be omitted. @var{maxcpus}
                     58: specifies the maximum number of hotpluggable CPUs.
1.1       root       59: ETEXI
                     60: 
                     61: DEF("numa", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_numa,
                     62:     "-numa node[,mem=size][,cpus=cpu[-cpu]][,nodeid=node]\n")
                     63: STEXI
                     64: @item -numa @var{opts}
                     65: Simulate a multi node NUMA system. If mem and cpus are omitted, resources
                     66: are split equally.
                     67: ETEXI
                     68: 
                     69: DEF("fda", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fda,
                     70:     "-fda/-fdb file  use 'file' as floppy disk 0/1 image\n")
                     71: DEF("fdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fdb, "")
                     72: STEXI
                     73: @item -fda @var{file}
                     74: @item -fdb @var{file}
                     75: Use @var{file} as floppy disk 0/1 image (@pxref{disk_images}). You can
                     76: use the host floppy by using @file{/dev/fd0} as filename (@pxref{host_drives}).
                     77: ETEXI
                     78: 
                     79: DEF("hda", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hda,
                     80:     "-hda/-hdb file  use 'file' as IDE hard disk 0/1 image\n")
                     81: DEF("hdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdb, "")
                     82: DEF("hdc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdc,
                     83:     "-hdc/-hdd file  use 'file' as IDE hard disk 2/3 image\n")
                     84: DEF("hdd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdd, "")
                     85: STEXI
                     86: @item -hda @var{file}
                     87: @item -hdb @var{file}
                     88: @item -hdc @var{file}
                     89: @item -hdd @var{file}
                     90: Use @var{file} as hard disk 0, 1, 2 or 3 image (@pxref{disk_images}).
                     91: ETEXI
                     92: 
                     93: DEF("cdrom", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_cdrom,
                     94:     "-cdrom file     use 'file' as IDE cdrom image (cdrom is ide1 master)\n")
                     95: STEXI
                     96: @item -cdrom @var{file}
                     97: Use @var{file} as CD-ROM image (you cannot use @option{-hdc} and
                     98: @option{-cdrom} at the same time). You can use the host CD-ROM by
                     99: using @file{/dev/cdrom} as filename (@pxref{host_drives}).
                    100: ETEXI
                    101: 
                    102: DEF("drive", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_drive,
                    103:     "-drive [file=file][,if=type][,bus=n][,unit=m][,media=d][,index=i]\n"
                    104:     "       [,cyls=c,heads=h,secs=s[,trans=t]][,snapshot=on|off]\n"
                    105:     "       [,cache=writethrough|writeback|none][,format=f][,serial=s]\n"
1.1.1.2   root      106:     "       [,addr=A][,id=name][,aio=threads|native]\n"
1.1       root      107:     "                use 'file' as a drive image\n")
1.1.1.2   root      108: DEF("set", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_set,
                    109:     "-set group.id.arg=value\n"
                    110:     "                set <arg> parameter for item <id> of type <group>\n"
                    111:     "                i.e. -set drive.$id.file=/path/to/image\n")
                    112: DEF("global", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_global,
                    113:     "-global driver.property=value\n"
                    114:     "                set a global default for a driver property\n")
1.1       root      115: STEXI
                    116: @item -drive @var{option}[,@var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]]
                    117: 
                    118: Define a new drive. Valid options are:
                    119: 
1.1.1.2   root      120: @table @option
1.1       root      121: @item file=@var{file}
                    122: This option defines which disk image (@pxref{disk_images}) to use with
                    123: this drive. If the filename contains comma, you must double it
                    124: (for instance, "file=my,,file" to use file "my,file").
                    125: @item if=@var{interface}
                    126: This option defines on which type on interface the drive is connected.
                    127: Available types are: ide, scsi, sd, mtd, floppy, pflash, virtio.
                    128: @item bus=@var{bus},unit=@var{unit}
                    129: These options define where is connected the drive by defining the bus number and
                    130: the unit id.
                    131: @item index=@var{index}
                    132: This option defines where is connected the drive by using an index in the list
                    133: of available connectors of a given interface type.
                    134: @item media=@var{media}
                    135: This option defines the type of the media: disk or cdrom.
                    136: @item cyls=@var{c},heads=@var{h},secs=@var{s}[,trans=@var{t}]
                    137: These options have the same definition as they have in @option{-hdachs}.
                    138: @item snapshot=@var{snapshot}
                    139: @var{snapshot} is "on" or "off" and allows to enable snapshot for given drive (see @option{-snapshot}).
                    140: @item cache=@var{cache}
                    141: @var{cache} is "none", "writeback", or "writethrough" and controls how the host cache is used to access block data.
1.1.1.2   root      142: @item aio=@var{aio}
                    143: @var{aio} is "threads", or "native" and selects between pthread based disk I/O and native Linux AIO.
1.1       root      144: @item format=@var{format}
                    145: Specify which disk @var{format} will be used rather than detecting
                    146: the format.  Can be used to specifiy format=raw to avoid interpreting
                    147: an untrusted format header.
                    148: @item serial=@var{serial}
                    149: This option specifies the serial number to assign to the device.
                    150: @item addr=@var{addr}
                    151: Specify the controller's PCI address (if=virtio only).
                    152: @end table
                    153: 
                    154: By default, writethrough caching is used for all block device.  This means that
                    155: the host page cache will be used to read and write data but write notification
                    156: will be sent to the guest only when the data has been reported as written by
                    157: the storage subsystem.
                    158: 
                    159: Writeback caching will report data writes as completed as soon as the data is
                    160: present in the host page cache.  This is safe as long as you trust your host.
                    161: If your host crashes or loses power, then the guest may experience data
                    162: corruption.  When using the @option{-snapshot} option, writeback caching is
                    163: used by default.
                    164: 
                    165: The host page cache can be avoided entirely with @option{cache=none}.  This will
                    166: attempt to do disk IO directly to the guests memory.  QEMU may still perform
                    167: an internal copy of the data.
                    168: 
                    169: Some block drivers perform badly with @option{cache=writethrough}, most notably,
                    170: qcow2.  If performance is more important than correctness,
                    171: @option{cache=writeback} should be used with qcow2.
                    172: 
                    173: Instead of @option{-cdrom} you can use:
                    174: @example
                    175: qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=cdrom
                    176: @end example
                    177: 
                    178: Instead of @option{-hda}, @option{-hdb}, @option{-hdc}, @option{-hdd}, you can
                    179: use:
                    180: @example
                    181: qemu -drive file=file,index=0,media=disk
                    182: qemu -drive file=file,index=1,media=disk
                    183: qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=disk
                    184: qemu -drive file=file,index=3,media=disk
                    185: @end example
                    186: 
                    187: You can connect a CDROM to the slave of ide0:
                    188: @example
                    189: qemu -drive file=file,if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom
                    190: @end example
                    191: 
                    192: If you don't specify the "file=" argument, you define an empty drive:
                    193: @example
                    194: qemu -drive if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom
                    195: @end example
                    196: 
                    197: You can connect a SCSI disk with unit ID 6 on the bus #0:
                    198: @example
                    199: qemu -drive file=file,if=scsi,bus=0,unit=6
                    200: @end example
                    201: 
                    202: Instead of @option{-fda}, @option{-fdb}, you can use:
                    203: @example
                    204: qemu -drive file=file,index=0,if=floppy
                    205: qemu -drive file=file,index=1,if=floppy
                    206: @end example
                    207: 
                    208: By default, @var{interface} is "ide" and @var{index} is automatically
                    209: incremented:
                    210: @example
                    211: qemu -drive file=a -drive file=b"
                    212: @end example
                    213: is interpreted like:
                    214: @example
                    215: qemu -hda a -hdb b
                    216: @end example
                    217: ETEXI
                    218: 
                    219: DEF("mtdblock", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_mtdblock,
                    220:     "-mtdblock file  use 'file' as on-board Flash memory image\n")
                    221: STEXI
                    222: 
1.1.1.2   root      223: @item -mtdblock @var{file}
                    224: Use @var{file} as on-board Flash memory image.
1.1       root      225: ETEXI
                    226: 
                    227: DEF("sd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_sd,
                    228:     "-sd file        use 'file' as SecureDigital card image\n")
                    229: STEXI
1.1.1.2   root      230: @item -sd @var{file}
                    231: Use @var{file} as SecureDigital card image.
1.1       root      232: ETEXI
                    233: 
                    234: DEF("pflash", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_pflash,
                    235:     "-pflash file    use 'file' as a parallel flash image\n")
                    236: STEXI
1.1.1.2   root      237: @item -pflash @var{file}
                    238: Use @var{file} as a parallel flash image.
1.1       root      239: ETEXI
                    240: 
                    241: DEF("boot", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_boot,
                    242:     "-boot [order=drives][,once=drives][,menu=on|off]\n"
                    243:     "                'drives': floppy (a), hard disk (c), CD-ROM (d), network (n)\n")
                    244: STEXI
                    245: @item -boot [order=@var{drives}][,once=@var{drives}][,menu=on|off]
                    246: 
                    247: Specify boot order @var{drives} as a string of drive letters. Valid
                    248: drive letters depend on the target achitecture. The x86 PC uses: a, b
                    249: (floppy 1 and 2), c (first hard disk), d (first CD-ROM), n-p (Etherboot
                    250: from network adapter 1-4), hard disk boot is the default. To apply a
                    251: particular boot order only on the first startup, specify it via
                    252: @option{once}.
                    253: 
                    254: Interactive boot menus/prompts can be enabled via @option{menu=on} as far
                    255: as firmware/BIOS supports them. The default is non-interactive boot.
                    256: 
                    257: @example
                    258: # try to boot from network first, then from hard disk
                    259: qemu -boot order=nc
                    260: # boot from CD-ROM first, switch back to default order after reboot
                    261: qemu -boot once=d
                    262: @end example
                    263: 
                    264: Note: The legacy format '-boot @var{drives}' is still supported but its
                    265: use is discouraged as it may be removed from future versions.
                    266: ETEXI
                    267: 
                    268: DEF("snapshot", 0, QEMU_OPTION_snapshot,
                    269:     "-snapshot       write to temporary files instead of disk image files\n")
                    270: STEXI
                    271: @item -snapshot
                    272: Write to temporary files instead of disk image files. In this case,
                    273: the raw disk image you use is not written back. You can however force
                    274: the write back by pressing @key{C-a s} (@pxref{disk_images}).
                    275: ETEXI
                    276: 
                    277: DEF("m", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_m,
                    278:     "-m megs         set virtual RAM size to megs MB [default=%d]\n")
                    279: STEXI
                    280: @item -m @var{megs}
                    281: Set virtual RAM size to @var{megs} megabytes. Default is 128 MiB.  Optionally,
                    282: a suffix of ``M'' or ``G'' can be used to signify a value in megabytes or
                    283: gigabytes respectively.
                    284: ETEXI
                    285: 
                    286: DEF("k", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_k,
                    287:     "-k language     use keyboard layout (for example 'fr' for French)\n")
                    288: STEXI
                    289: @item -k @var{language}
                    290: 
                    291: Use keyboard layout @var{language} (for example @code{fr} for
                    292: French). This option is only needed where it is not easy to get raw PC
                    293: keycodes (e.g. on Macs, with some X11 servers or with a VNC
                    294: display). You don't normally need to use it on PC/Linux or PC/Windows
                    295: hosts.
                    296: 
                    297: The available layouts are:
                    298: @example
                    299: ar  de-ch  es  fo     fr-ca  hu  ja  mk     no  pt-br  sv
                    300: da  en-gb  et  fr     fr-ch  is  lt  nl     pl  ru     th
                    301: de  en-us  fi  fr-be  hr     it  lv  nl-be  pt  sl     tr
                    302: @end example
                    303: 
                    304: The default is @code{en-us}.
                    305: ETEXI
                    306: 
                    307: 
                    308: #ifdef HAS_AUDIO
                    309: DEF("audio-help", 0, QEMU_OPTION_audio_help,
                    310:     "-audio-help     print list of audio drivers and their options\n")
                    311: #endif
                    312: STEXI
                    313: @item -audio-help
                    314: 
                    315: Will show the audio subsystem help: list of drivers, tunable
                    316: parameters.
                    317: ETEXI
                    318: 
                    319: #ifdef HAS_AUDIO
                    320: DEF("soundhw", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_soundhw,
                    321:     "-soundhw c1,... enable audio support\n"
                    322:     "                and only specified sound cards (comma separated list)\n"
                    323:     "                use -soundhw ? to get the list of supported cards\n"
                    324:     "                use -soundhw all to enable all of them\n")
                    325: #endif
                    326: STEXI
                    327: @item -soundhw @var{card1}[,@var{card2},...] or -soundhw all
                    328: 
                    329: Enable audio and selected sound hardware. Use ? to print all
                    330: available sound hardware.
                    331: 
                    332: @example
                    333: qemu -soundhw sb16,adlib disk.img
                    334: qemu -soundhw es1370 disk.img
                    335: qemu -soundhw ac97 disk.img
                    336: qemu -soundhw all disk.img
                    337: qemu -soundhw ?
                    338: @end example
                    339: 
                    340: Note that Linux's i810_audio OSS kernel (for AC97) module might
                    341: require manually specifying clocking.
                    342: 
                    343: @example
                    344: modprobe i810_audio clocking=48000
                    345: @end example
                    346: ETEXI
                    347: 
                    348: STEXI
                    349: @end table
                    350: ETEXI
                    351: 
                    352: DEF("usb", 0, QEMU_OPTION_usb,
                    353:     "-usb            enable the USB driver (will be the default soon)\n")
                    354: STEXI
                    355: USB options:
                    356: @table @option
                    357: 
                    358: @item -usb
                    359: Enable the USB driver (will be the default soon)
                    360: ETEXI
                    361: 
                    362: DEF("usbdevice", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_usbdevice,
                    363:     "-usbdevice name add the host or guest USB device 'name'\n")
                    364: STEXI
                    365: 
                    366: @item -usbdevice @var{devname}
                    367: Add the USB device @var{devname}. @xref{usb_devices}.
                    368: 
1.1.1.2   root      369: @table @option
1.1       root      370: 
                    371: @item mouse
                    372: Virtual Mouse. This will override the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
                    373: 
                    374: @item tablet
                    375: Pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (like a touchscreen). This
                    376: means qemu is able to report the mouse position without having to grab the
                    377: mouse. Also overrides the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
                    378: 
1.1.1.2   root      379: @item disk:[format=@var{format}]:@var{file}
1.1       root      380: Mass storage device based on file. The optional @var{format} argument
                    381: will be used rather than detecting the format. Can be used to specifiy
1.1.1.2   root      382: @code{format=raw} to avoid interpreting an untrusted format header.
1.1       root      383: 
1.1.1.2   root      384: @item host:@var{bus}.@var{addr}
                    385: Pass through the host device identified by @var{bus}.@var{addr} (Linux only).
1.1       root      386: 
1.1.1.2   root      387: @item host:@var{vendor_id}:@var{product_id}
                    388: Pass through the host device identified by @var{vendor_id}:@var{product_id}
                    389: (Linux only).
1.1       root      390: 
                    391: @item serial:[vendorid=@var{vendor_id}][,productid=@var{product_id}]:@var{dev}
                    392: Serial converter to host character device @var{dev}, see @code{-serial} for the
                    393: available devices.
                    394: 
                    395: @item braille
                    396: Braille device.  This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real
                    397: or fake device.
                    398: 
1.1.1.2   root      399: @item net:@var{options}
1.1       root      400: Network adapter that supports CDC ethernet and RNDIS protocols.
                    401: 
                    402: @end table
                    403: ETEXI
                    404: 
1.1.1.2   root      405: DEF("device", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_device,
                    406:     "-device driver[,options]  add device\n")
1.1       root      407: DEF("name", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_name,
                    408:     "-name string1[,process=string2]    set the name of the guest\n"
                    409:     "            string1 sets the window title and string2 the process name (on Linux)\n")
                    410: STEXI
                    411: @item -name @var{name}
                    412: Sets the @var{name} of the guest.
                    413: This name will be displayed in the SDL window caption.
                    414: The @var{name} will also be used for the VNC server.
                    415: Also optionally set the top visible process name in Linux.
                    416: ETEXI
                    417: 
                    418: DEF("uuid", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_uuid,
                    419:     "-uuid %%08x-%%04x-%%04x-%%04x-%%012x\n"
                    420:     "                specify machine UUID\n")
                    421: STEXI
                    422: @item -uuid @var{uuid}
                    423: Set system UUID.
                    424: ETEXI
                    425: 
                    426: STEXI
                    427: @end table
                    428: ETEXI
                    429: 
                    430: DEFHEADING()
                    431: 
                    432: DEFHEADING(Display options:)
                    433: 
                    434: STEXI
                    435: @table @option
                    436: ETEXI
                    437: 
                    438: DEF("nographic", 0, QEMU_OPTION_nographic,
                    439:     "-nographic      disable graphical output and redirect serial I/Os to console\n")
                    440: STEXI
                    441: @item -nographic
                    442: 
                    443: Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option,
                    444: you can totally disable graphical output so that QEMU is a simple
                    445: command line application. The emulated serial port is redirected on
                    446: the console. Therefore, you can still use QEMU to debug a Linux kernel
                    447: with a serial console.
                    448: ETEXI
                    449: 
                    450: #ifdef CONFIG_CURSES
                    451: DEF("curses", 0, QEMU_OPTION_curses,
                    452:     "-curses         use a curses/ncurses interface instead of SDL\n")
                    453: #endif
                    454: STEXI
                    455: @item -curses
                    456: 
                    457: Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output.  With this option,
                    458: QEMU can display the VGA output when in text mode using a
                    459: curses/ncurses interface.  Nothing is displayed in graphical mode.
                    460: ETEXI
                    461: 
                    462: #ifdef CONFIG_SDL
                    463: DEF("no-frame", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_frame,
                    464:     "-no-frame       open SDL window without a frame and window decorations\n")
                    465: #endif
                    466: STEXI
                    467: @item -no-frame
                    468: 
                    469: Do not use decorations for SDL windows and start them using the whole
                    470: available screen space. This makes the using QEMU in a dedicated desktop
                    471: workspace more convenient.
                    472: ETEXI
                    473: 
                    474: #ifdef CONFIG_SDL
                    475: DEF("alt-grab", 0, QEMU_OPTION_alt_grab,
                    476:     "-alt-grab       use Ctrl-Alt-Shift to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt)\n")
                    477: #endif
                    478: STEXI
                    479: @item -alt-grab
                    480: 
                    481: Use Ctrl-Alt-Shift to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt).
                    482: ETEXI
                    483: 
                    484: #ifdef CONFIG_SDL
1.1.1.2   root      485: DEF("ctrl-grab", 0, QEMU_OPTION_ctrl_grab,
                    486:     "-ctrl-grab       use Right-Ctrl to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt)\n")
                    487: #endif
                    488: STEXI
                    489: @item -ctrl-grab
                    490: 
                    491: Use Right-Ctrl to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt).
                    492: ETEXI
                    493: 
                    494: #ifdef CONFIG_SDL
1.1       root      495: DEF("no-quit", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_quit,
                    496:     "-no-quit        disable SDL window close capability\n")
                    497: #endif
                    498: STEXI
                    499: @item -no-quit
                    500: 
                    501: Disable SDL window close capability.
                    502: ETEXI
                    503: 
                    504: #ifdef CONFIG_SDL
                    505: DEF("sdl", 0, QEMU_OPTION_sdl,
                    506:     "-sdl            enable SDL\n")
                    507: #endif
                    508: STEXI
                    509: @item -sdl
                    510: 
                    511: Enable SDL.
                    512: ETEXI
                    513: 
                    514: DEF("portrait", 0, QEMU_OPTION_portrait,
                    515:     "-portrait       rotate graphical output 90 deg left (only PXA LCD)\n")
                    516: STEXI
                    517: @item -portrait
                    518: 
                    519: Rotate graphical output 90 deg left (only PXA LCD).
                    520: ETEXI
                    521: 
                    522: DEF("vga", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_vga,
                    523:     "-vga [std|cirrus|vmware|xenfb|none]\n"
                    524:     "                select video card type\n")
                    525: STEXI
                    526: @item -vga @var{type}
                    527: Select type of VGA card to emulate. Valid values for @var{type} are
1.1.1.2   root      528: @table @option
1.1       root      529: @item cirrus
                    530: Cirrus Logic GD5446 Video card. All Windows versions starting from
                    531: Windows 95 should recognize and use this graphic card. For optimal
                    532: performances, use 16 bit color depth in the guest and the host OS.
                    533: (This one is the default)
                    534: @item std
                    535: Standard VGA card with Bochs VBE extensions.  If your guest OS
                    536: supports the VESA 2.0 VBE extensions (e.g. Windows XP) and if you want
                    537: to use high resolution modes (>= 1280x1024x16) then you should use
                    538: this option.
                    539: @item vmware
                    540: VMWare SVGA-II compatible adapter. Use it if you have sufficiently
                    541: recent XFree86/XOrg server or Windows guest with a driver for this
                    542: card.
                    543: @item none
                    544: Disable VGA card.
                    545: @end table
                    546: ETEXI
                    547: 
                    548: DEF("full-screen", 0, QEMU_OPTION_full_screen,
                    549:     "-full-screen    start in full screen\n")
                    550: STEXI
                    551: @item -full-screen
                    552: Start in full screen.
                    553: ETEXI
                    554: 
                    555: #if defined(TARGET_PPC) || defined(TARGET_SPARC)
                    556: DEF("g", 1, QEMU_OPTION_g ,
                    557:     "-g WxH[xDEPTH]  Set the initial graphical resolution and depth\n")
                    558: #endif
                    559: STEXI
                    560: ETEXI
                    561: 
                    562: DEF("vnc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_vnc ,
                    563:     "-vnc display    start a VNC server on display\n")
                    564: STEXI
                    565: @item -vnc @var{display}[,@var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]]
                    566: 
                    567: Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output.  With this option,
                    568: you can have QEMU listen on VNC display @var{display} and redirect the VGA
                    569: display over the VNC session.  It is very useful to enable the usb
                    570: tablet device when using this option (option @option{-usbdevice
                    571: tablet}). When using the VNC display, you must use the @option{-k}
                    572: parameter to set the keyboard layout if you are not using en-us. Valid
                    573: syntax for the @var{display} is
                    574: 
1.1.1.2   root      575: @table @option
1.1       root      576: 
                    577: @item @var{host}:@var{d}
                    578: 
                    579: TCP connections will only be allowed from @var{host} on display @var{d}.
                    580: By convention the TCP port is 5900+@var{d}. Optionally, @var{host} can
                    581: be omitted in which case the server will accept connections from any host.
                    582: 
1.1.1.2   root      583: @item unix:@var{path}
1.1       root      584: 
                    585: Connections will be allowed over UNIX domain sockets where @var{path} is the
                    586: location of a unix socket to listen for connections on.
                    587: 
                    588: @item none
                    589: 
                    590: VNC is initialized but not started. The monitor @code{change} command
                    591: can be used to later start the VNC server.
                    592: 
                    593: @end table
                    594: 
                    595: Following the @var{display} value there may be one or more @var{option} flags
                    596: separated by commas. Valid options are
                    597: 
1.1.1.2   root      598: @table @option
1.1       root      599: 
                    600: @item reverse
                    601: 
                    602: Connect to a listening VNC client via a ``reverse'' connection. The
                    603: client is specified by the @var{display}. For reverse network
                    604: connections (@var{host}:@var{d},@code{reverse}), the @var{d} argument
                    605: is a TCP port number, not a display number.
                    606: 
                    607: @item password
                    608: 
                    609: Require that password based authentication is used for client connections.
                    610: The password must be set separately using the @code{change} command in the
                    611: @ref{pcsys_monitor}
                    612: 
                    613: @item tls
                    614: 
                    615: Require that client use TLS when communicating with the VNC server. This
                    616: uses anonymous TLS credentials so is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle
                    617: attack. It is recommended that this option be combined with either the
1.1.1.2   root      618: @option{x509} or @option{x509verify} options.
1.1       root      619: 
                    620: @item x509=@var{/path/to/certificate/dir}
                    621: 
                    622: Valid if @option{tls} is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used
                    623: for negotiating the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate
                    624: to the client. It is recommended that a password be set on the VNC server
                    625: to provide authentication of the client when this is used. The path following
                    626: this option specifies where the x509 certificates are to be loaded from.
                    627: See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on generating certificates.
                    628: 
                    629: @item x509verify=@var{/path/to/certificate/dir}
                    630: 
                    631: Valid if @option{tls} is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used
                    632: for negotiating the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate
                    633: to the client, and request that the client send its own x509 certificate.
                    634: The server will validate the client's certificate against the CA certificate,
                    635: and reject clients when validation fails. If the certificate authority is
                    636: trusted, this is a sufficient authentication mechanism. You may still wish
                    637: to set a password on the VNC server as a second authentication layer. The
                    638: path following this option specifies where the x509 certificates are to
                    639: be loaded from. See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on generating
                    640: certificates.
                    641: 
                    642: @item sasl
                    643: 
                    644: Require that the client use SASL to authenticate with the VNC server.
                    645: The exact choice of authentication method used is controlled from the
                    646: system / user's SASL configuration file for the 'qemu' service. This
                    647: is typically found in /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf. If running QEMU as an
                    648: unprivileged user, an environment variable SASL_CONF_PATH can be used
                    649: to make it search alternate locations for the service config.
                    650: While some SASL auth methods can also provide data encryption (eg GSSAPI),
                    651: it is recommended that SASL always be combined with the 'tls' and
                    652: 'x509' settings to enable use of SSL and server certificates. This
                    653: ensures a data encryption preventing compromise of authentication
                    654: credentials. See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on using
                    655: SASL authentication.
                    656: 
                    657: @item acl
                    658: 
                    659: Turn on access control lists for checking of the x509 client certificate
                    660: and SASL party. For x509 certs, the ACL check is made against the
                    661: certificate's distinguished name. This is something that looks like
                    662: @code{C=GB,O=ACME,L=Boston,CN=bob}. For SASL party, the ACL check is
                    663: made against the username, which depending on the SASL plugin, may
                    664: include a realm component, eg @code{bob} or @code{bob@@EXAMPLE.COM}.
                    665: When the @option{acl} flag is set, the initial access list will be
                    666: empty, with a @code{deny} policy. Thus no one will be allowed to
                    667: use the VNC server until the ACLs have been loaded. This can be
                    668: achieved using the @code{acl} monitor command.
                    669: 
                    670: @end table
                    671: ETEXI
                    672: 
                    673: STEXI
                    674: @end table
                    675: ETEXI
                    676: 
                    677: DEFHEADING()
                    678: 
                    679: #ifdef TARGET_I386
                    680: DEFHEADING(i386 target only:)
                    681: #endif
                    682: STEXI
                    683: @table @option
                    684: ETEXI
                    685: 
                    686: #ifdef TARGET_I386
                    687: DEF("win2k-hack", 0, QEMU_OPTION_win2k_hack,
                    688:     "-win2k-hack     use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug\n")
                    689: #endif
                    690: STEXI
                    691: @item -win2k-hack
                    692: Use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug. After
                    693: Windows 2000 is installed, you no longer need this option (this option
                    694: slows down the IDE transfers).
                    695: ETEXI
                    696: 
                    697: #ifdef TARGET_I386
1.1.1.2   root      698: HXCOMM Deprecated by -rtc
                    699: DEF("rtc-td-hack", 0, QEMU_OPTION_rtc_td_hack, "")
1.1       root      700: #endif
                    701: 
                    702: #ifdef TARGET_I386
                    703: DEF("no-fd-bootchk", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_fd_bootchk,
                    704:     "-no-fd-bootchk  disable boot signature checking for floppy disks\n")
                    705: #endif
                    706: STEXI
                    707: @item -no-fd-bootchk
                    708: Disable boot signature checking for floppy disks in Bochs BIOS. It may
                    709: be needed to boot from old floppy disks.
                    710: ETEXI
                    711: 
                    712: #ifdef TARGET_I386
                    713: DEF("no-acpi", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_acpi,
                    714:            "-no-acpi        disable ACPI\n")
                    715: #endif
                    716: STEXI
                    717: @item -no-acpi
                    718: Disable ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support. Use
                    719: it if your guest OS complains about ACPI problems (PC target machine
                    720: only).
                    721: ETEXI
                    722: 
                    723: #ifdef TARGET_I386
                    724: DEF("no-hpet", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_hpet,
                    725:     "-no-hpet        disable HPET\n")
                    726: #endif
                    727: STEXI
                    728: @item -no-hpet
                    729: Disable HPET support.
                    730: ETEXI
                    731: 
                    732: #ifdef TARGET_I386
                    733: DEF("balloon", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_balloon,
                    734:     "-balloon none   disable balloon device\n"
                    735:     "-balloon virtio[,addr=str]\n"
                    736:     "                enable virtio balloon device (default)\n")
                    737: #endif
                    738: STEXI
                    739: @item -balloon none
                    740: Disable balloon device.
                    741: @item -balloon virtio[,addr=@var{addr}]
                    742: Enable virtio balloon device (default), optionally with PCI address
                    743: @var{addr}.
                    744: ETEXI
                    745: 
                    746: #ifdef TARGET_I386
                    747: DEF("acpitable", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_acpitable,
                    748:     "-acpitable [sig=str][,rev=n][,oem_id=str][,oem_table_id=str][,oem_rev=n][,asl_compiler_id=str][,asl_compiler_rev=n][,data=file1[:file2]...]\n"
                    749:     "                ACPI table description\n")
                    750: #endif
                    751: STEXI
                    752: @item -acpitable [sig=@var{str}][,rev=@var{n}][,oem_id=@var{str}][,oem_table_id=@var{str}][,oem_rev=@var{n}] [,asl_compiler_id=@var{str}][,asl_compiler_rev=@var{n}][,data=@var{file1}[:@var{file2}]...]
                    753: Add ACPI table with specified header fields and context from specified files.
                    754: ETEXI
                    755: 
                    756: #ifdef TARGET_I386
                    757: DEF("smbios", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_smbios,
                    758:     "-smbios file=binary\n"
                    759:     "                Load SMBIOS entry from binary file\n"
                    760:     "-smbios type=0[,vendor=str][,version=str][,date=str][,release=%%d.%%d]\n"
                    761:     "                Specify SMBIOS type 0 fields\n"
                    762:     "-smbios type=1[,manufacturer=str][,product=str][,version=str][,serial=str]\n"
                    763:     "              [,uuid=uuid][,sku=str][,family=str]\n"
                    764:     "                Specify SMBIOS type 1 fields\n")
                    765: #endif
                    766: STEXI
                    767: @item -smbios file=@var{binary}
                    768: Load SMBIOS entry from binary file.
                    769: 
                    770: @item -smbios type=0[,vendor=@var{str}][,version=@var{str}][,date=@var{str}][,release=@var{%d.%d}]
                    771: Specify SMBIOS type 0 fields
                    772: 
                    773: @item -smbios type=1[,manufacturer=@var{str}][,product=@var{str}][,version=@var{str}][,serial=@var{str}][,uuid=@var{uuid}][,sku=@var{str}][,family=@var{str}]
                    774: Specify SMBIOS type 1 fields
                    775: ETEXI
                    776: 
                    777: #ifdef TARGET_I386
                    778: DEFHEADING()
                    779: #endif
                    780: STEXI
                    781: @end table
                    782: ETEXI
                    783: 
                    784: DEFHEADING(Network options:)
                    785: STEXI
                    786: @table @option
                    787: ETEXI
                    788: 
                    789: HXCOMM Legacy slirp options (now moved to -net user):
                    790: #ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
                    791: DEF("tftp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_tftp, "")
                    792: DEF("bootp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_bootp, "")
                    793: DEF("redir", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_redir, "")
                    794: #ifndef _WIN32
                    795: DEF("smb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_smb, "")
                    796: #endif
                    797: #endif
                    798: 
                    799: DEF("net", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_net,
                    800:     "-net nic[,vlan=n][,macaddr=mac][,model=type][,name=str][,addr=str][,vectors=v]\n"
                    801:     "                create a new Network Interface Card and connect it to VLAN 'n'\n"
                    802: #ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
                    803:     "-net user[,vlan=n][,name=str][,net=addr[/mask]][,host=addr][,restrict=y|n]\n"
                    804:     "         [,hostname=host][,dhcpstart=addr][,dns=addr][,tftp=dir][,bootfile=f]\n"
                    805:     "         [,hostfwd=rule][,guestfwd=rule]"
                    806: #ifndef _WIN32
                    807:                                              "[,smb=dir[,smbserver=addr]]\n"
                    808: #endif
                    809:     "                connect the user mode network stack to VLAN 'n', configure its\n"
                    810:     "                DHCP server and enabled optional services\n"
                    811: #endif
                    812: #ifdef _WIN32
                    813:     "-net tap[,vlan=n][,name=str],ifname=name\n"
                    814:     "                connect the host TAP network interface to VLAN 'n'\n"
                    815: #else
1.1.1.2   root      816:     "-net tap[,vlan=n][,name=str][,fd=h][,ifname=name][,script=file][,downscript=dfile][,sndbuf=nbytes][,vnet_hdr=on|off]\n"
1.1       root      817:     "                connect the host TAP network interface to VLAN 'n' and use the\n"
                    818:     "                network scripts 'file' (default=%s)\n"
                    819:     "                and 'dfile' (default=%s);\n"
                    820:     "                use '[down]script=no' to disable script execution;\n"
                    821:     "                use 'fd=h' to connect to an already opened TAP interface\n"
                    822:     "                use 'sndbuf=nbytes' to limit the size of the send buffer; the\n"
                    823:     "                default of 'sndbuf=1048576' can be disabled using 'sndbuf=0'\n"
1.1.1.2   root      824:     "                use vnet_hdr=off to avoid enabling the IFF_VNET_HDR tap flag; use\n"
                    825:     "                vnet_hdr=on to make the lack of IFF_VNET_HDR support an error condition\n"
1.1       root      826: #endif
                    827:     "-net socket[,vlan=n][,name=str][,fd=h][,listen=[host]:port][,connect=host:port]\n"
                    828:     "                connect the vlan 'n' to another VLAN using a socket connection\n"
                    829:     "-net socket[,vlan=n][,name=str][,fd=h][,mcast=maddr:port]\n"
                    830:     "                connect the vlan 'n' to multicast maddr and port\n"
                    831: #ifdef CONFIG_VDE
                    832:     "-net vde[,vlan=n][,name=str][,sock=socketpath][,port=n][,group=groupname][,mode=octalmode]\n"
                    833:     "                connect the vlan 'n' to port 'n' of a vde switch running\n"
                    834:     "                on host and listening for incoming connections on 'socketpath'.\n"
                    835:     "                Use group 'groupname' and mode 'octalmode' to change default\n"
                    836:     "                ownership and permissions for communication port.\n"
                    837: #endif
                    838:     "-net dump[,vlan=n][,file=f][,len=n]\n"
                    839:     "                dump traffic on vlan 'n' to file 'f' (max n bytes per packet)\n"
                    840:     "-net none       use it alone to have zero network devices; if no -net option\n"
                    841:     "                is provided, the default is '-net nic -net user'\n")
1.1.1.2   root      842: DEF("netdev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_netdev,
                    843:     "-netdev ["
                    844: #ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
                    845:     "user|"
                    846: #endif
                    847:     "tap|"
                    848: #ifdef CONFIG_VDE
                    849:     "vde|"
                    850: #endif
                    851:     "socket],id=str[,option][,option][,...]\n")
1.1       root      852: STEXI
                    853: @item -net nic[,vlan=@var{n}][,macaddr=@var{mac}][,model=@var{type}][,name=@var{name}][,addr=@var{addr}][,vectors=@var{v}]
                    854: Create a new Network Interface Card and connect it to VLAN @var{n} (@var{n}
1.1.1.2   root      855: = 0 is the default). The NIC is an e1000 by default on the PC
1.1       root      856: target. Optionally, the MAC address can be changed to @var{mac}, the
                    857: device address set to @var{addr} (PCI cards only),
                    858: and a @var{name} can be assigned for use in monitor commands.
                    859: Optionally, for PCI cards, you can specify the number @var{v} of MSI-X vectors
                    860: that the card should have; this option currently only affects virtio cards; set
                    861: @var{v} = 0 to disable MSI-X. If no @option{-net} option is specified, a single
                    862: NIC is created.  Qemu can emulate several different models of network card.
                    863: Valid values for @var{type} are
                    864: @code{virtio}, @code{i82551}, @code{i82557b}, @code{i82559er},
                    865: @code{ne2k_pci}, @code{ne2k_isa}, @code{pcnet}, @code{rtl8139},
                    866: @code{e1000}, @code{smc91c111}, @code{lance} and @code{mcf_fec}.
                    867: Not all devices are supported on all targets.  Use -net nic,model=?
                    868: for a list of available devices for your target.
                    869: 
                    870: @item -net user[,@var{option}][,@var{option}][,...]
                    871: Use the user mode network stack which requires no administrator
                    872: privilege to run. Valid options are:
                    873: 
1.1.1.2   root      874: @table @option
1.1       root      875: @item vlan=@var{n}
                    876: Connect user mode stack to VLAN @var{n} (@var{n} = 0 is the default).
                    877: 
                    878: @item name=@var{name}
                    879: Assign symbolic name for use in monitor commands.
                    880: 
                    881: @item net=@var{addr}[/@var{mask}]
                    882: Set IP network address the guest will see. Optionally specify the netmask,
                    883: either in the form a.b.c.d or as number of valid top-most bits. Default is
                    884: 10.0.2.0/8.
                    885: 
                    886: @item host=@var{addr}
                    887: Specify the guest-visible address of the host. Default is the 2nd IP in the
                    888: guest network, i.e. x.x.x.2.
                    889: 
                    890: @item restrict=y|yes|n|no
                    891: If this options is enabled, the guest will be isolated, i.e. it will not be
                    892: able to contact the host and no guest IP packets will be routed over the host
                    893: to the outside. This option does not affect explicitly set forwarding rule.
                    894: 
                    895: @item hostname=@var{name}
                    896: Specifies the client hostname reported by the builtin DHCP server.
                    897: 
                    898: @item dhcpstart=@var{addr}
                    899: Specify the first of the 16 IPs the built-in DHCP server can assign. Default
                    900: is the 16th to 31st IP in the guest network, i.e. x.x.x.16 to x.x.x.31.
                    901: 
                    902: @item dns=@var{addr}
                    903: Specify the guest-visible address of the virtual nameserver. The address must
                    904: be different from the host address. Default is the 3rd IP in the guest network,
                    905: i.e. x.x.x.3.
                    906: 
                    907: @item tftp=@var{dir}
                    908: When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in TFTP
                    909: server. The files in @var{dir} will be exposed as the root of a TFTP server.
                    910: The TFTP client on the guest must be configured in binary mode (use the command
                    911: @code{bin} of the Unix TFTP client).
                    912: 
                    913: @item bootfile=@var{file}
                    914: When using the user mode network stack, broadcast @var{file} as the BOOTP
                    915: filename. In conjunction with @option{tftp}, this can be used to network boot
                    916: a guest from a local directory.
                    917: 
                    918: Example (using pxelinux):
                    919: @example
                    920: qemu -hda linux.img -boot n -net user,tftp=/path/to/tftp/files,bootfile=/pxelinux.0
                    921: @end example
                    922: 
                    923: @item smb=@var{dir}[,smbserver=@var{addr}]
                    924: When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in SMB
                    925: server so that Windows OSes can access to the host files in @file{@var{dir}}
                    926: transparently. The IP address of the SMB server can be set to @var{addr}. By
                    927: default the 4th IP in the guest network is used, i.e. x.x.x.4.
                    928: 
                    929: In the guest Windows OS, the line:
                    930: @example
                    931: 10.0.2.4 smbserver
                    932: @end example
                    933: must be added in the file @file{C:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS} (for windows 9x/Me)
                    934: or @file{C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\ETC\LMHOSTS} (Windows NT/2000).
                    935: 
                    936: Then @file{@var{dir}} can be accessed in @file{\\smbserver\qemu}.
                    937: 
                    938: Note that a SAMBA server must be installed on the host OS in
                    939: @file{/usr/sbin/smbd}. QEMU was tested successfully with smbd versions from
                    940: Red Hat 9, Fedora Core 3 and OpenSUSE 11.x.
                    941: 
                    942: @item hostfwd=[tcp|udp]:[@var{hostaddr}]:@var{hostport}-[@var{guestaddr}]:@var{guestport}
                    943: Redirect incoming TCP or UDP connections to the host port @var{hostport} to
                    944: the guest IP address @var{guestaddr} on guest port @var{guestport}. If
                    945: @var{guestaddr} is not specified, its value is x.x.x.15 (default first address
                    946: given by the built-in DHCP server). By specifying @var{hostaddr}, the rule can
                    947: be bound to a specific host interface. If no connection type is set, TCP is
                    948: used. This option can be given multiple times.
                    949: 
                    950: For example, to redirect host X11 connection from screen 1 to guest
                    951: screen 0, use the following:
                    952: 
                    953: @example
                    954: # on the host
                    955: qemu -net user,hostfwd=tcp:127.0.0.1:6001-:6000 [...]
                    956: # this host xterm should open in the guest X11 server
                    957: xterm -display :1
                    958: @end example
                    959: 
                    960: To redirect telnet connections from host port 5555 to telnet port on
                    961: the guest, use the following:
                    962: 
                    963: @example
                    964: # on the host
                    965: qemu -net user,hostfwd=tcp:5555::23 [...]
                    966: telnet localhost 5555
                    967: @end example
                    968: 
                    969: Then when you use on the host @code{telnet localhost 5555}, you
                    970: connect to the guest telnet server.
                    971: 
                    972: @item guestfwd=[tcp]:@var{server}:@var{port}-@var{dev}
                    973: Forward guest TCP connections to the IP address @var{server} on port @var{port}
                    974: to the character device @var{dev}. This option can be given multiple times.
                    975: 
                    976: @end table
                    977: 
                    978: Note: Legacy stand-alone options -tftp, -bootp, -smb and -redir are still
                    979: processed and applied to -net user. Mixing them with the new configuration
                    980: syntax gives undefined results. Their use for new applications is discouraged
                    981: as they will be removed from future versions.
                    982: 
                    983: @item -net tap[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,fd=@var{h}][,ifname=@var{name}][,script=@var{file}][,downscript=@var{dfile}]
                    984: Connect the host TAP network interface @var{name} to VLAN @var{n}, use
                    985: the network script @var{file} to configure it and the network script
                    986: @var{dfile} to deconfigure it. If @var{name} is not provided, the OS
                    987: automatically provides one. @option{fd}=@var{h} can be used to specify
                    988: the handle of an already opened host TAP interface. The default network
                    989: configure script is @file{/etc/qemu-ifup} and the default network
                    990: deconfigure script is @file{/etc/qemu-ifdown}. Use @option{script=no}
                    991: or @option{downscript=no} to disable script execution. Example:
                    992: 
                    993: @example
                    994: qemu linux.img -net nic -net tap
                    995: @end example
                    996: 
                    997: More complicated example (two NICs, each one connected to a TAP device)
                    998: @example
                    999: qemu linux.img -net nic,vlan=0 -net tap,vlan=0,ifname=tap0 \
                   1000:                -net nic,vlan=1 -net tap,vlan=1,ifname=tap1
                   1001: @end example
                   1002: 
                   1003: @item -net socket[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,fd=@var{h}][,listen=[@var{host}]:@var{port}][,connect=@var{host}:@var{port}]
                   1004: 
                   1005: Connect the VLAN @var{n} to a remote VLAN in another QEMU virtual
                   1006: machine using a TCP socket connection. If @option{listen} is
                   1007: specified, QEMU waits for incoming connections on @var{port}
                   1008: (@var{host} is optional). @option{connect} is used to connect to
                   1009: another QEMU instance using the @option{listen} option. @option{fd}=@var{h}
                   1010: specifies an already opened TCP socket.
                   1011: 
                   1012: Example:
                   1013: @example
                   1014: # launch a first QEMU instance
                   1015: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
                   1016:                -net socket,listen=:1234
                   1017: # connect the VLAN 0 of this instance to the VLAN 0
                   1018: # of the first instance
                   1019: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
                   1020:                -net socket,connect=127.0.0.1:1234
                   1021: @end example
                   1022: 
                   1023: @item -net socket[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,fd=@var{h}][,mcast=@var{maddr}:@var{port}]
                   1024: 
                   1025: Create a VLAN @var{n} shared with another QEMU virtual
                   1026: machines using a UDP multicast socket, effectively making a bus for
                   1027: every QEMU with same multicast address @var{maddr} and @var{port}.
                   1028: NOTES:
                   1029: @enumerate
                   1030: @item
                   1031: Several QEMU can be running on different hosts and share same bus (assuming
                   1032: correct multicast setup for these hosts).
                   1033: @item
                   1034: mcast support is compatible with User Mode Linux (argument @option{eth@var{N}=mcast}), see
                   1035: @url{http://user-mode-linux.sf.net}.
                   1036: @item
                   1037: Use @option{fd=h} to specify an already opened UDP multicast socket.
                   1038: @end enumerate
                   1039: 
                   1040: Example:
                   1041: @example
                   1042: # launch one QEMU instance
                   1043: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
                   1044:                -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
                   1045: # launch another QEMU instance on same "bus"
                   1046: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
                   1047:                -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
                   1048: # launch yet another QEMU instance on same "bus"
                   1049: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:58 \
                   1050:                -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
                   1051: @end example
                   1052: 
                   1053: Example (User Mode Linux compat.):
                   1054: @example
                   1055: # launch QEMU instance (note mcast address selected
                   1056: # is UML's default)
                   1057: qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
                   1058:                -net socket,mcast=239.192.168.1:1102
                   1059: # launch UML
                   1060: /path/to/linux ubd0=/path/to/root_fs eth0=mcast
                   1061: @end example
                   1062: 
                   1063: @item -net vde[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,sock=@var{socketpath}][,port=@var{n}][,group=@var{groupname}][,mode=@var{octalmode}]
                   1064: Connect VLAN @var{n} to PORT @var{n} of a vde switch running on host and
                   1065: listening for incoming connections on @var{socketpath}. Use GROUP @var{groupname}
                   1066: and MODE @var{octalmode} to change default ownership and permissions for
                   1067: communication port. This option is available only if QEMU has been compiled
                   1068: with vde support enabled.
                   1069: 
                   1070: Example:
                   1071: @example
                   1072: # launch vde switch
                   1073: vde_switch -F -sock /tmp/myswitch
                   1074: # launch QEMU instance
                   1075: qemu linux.img -net nic -net vde,sock=/tmp/myswitch
                   1076: @end example
                   1077: 
                   1078: @item -net dump[,vlan=@var{n}][,file=@var{file}][,len=@var{len}]
                   1079: Dump network traffic on VLAN @var{n} to file @var{file} (@file{qemu-vlan0.pcap} by default).
                   1080: At most @var{len} bytes (64k by default) per packet are stored. The file format is
                   1081: libpcap, so it can be analyzed with tools such as tcpdump or Wireshark.
                   1082: 
                   1083: @item -net none
                   1084: Indicate that no network devices should be configured. It is used to
                   1085: override the default configuration (@option{-net nic -net user}) which
                   1086: is activated if no @option{-net} options are provided.
                   1087: 
                   1088: @end table
                   1089: ETEXI
                   1090: 
1.1.1.2   root     1091: DEFHEADING()
                   1092: 
                   1093: DEFHEADING(Character device options:)
                   1094: 
                   1095: DEF("chardev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_chardev,
                   1096:     "-chardev null,id=id\n"
                   1097:     "-chardev socket,id=id[,host=host],port=host[,to=to][,ipv4][,ipv6][,nodelay]\n"
                   1098:     "         [,server][,nowait][,telnet] (tcp)\n"
                   1099:     "-chardev socket,id=id,path=path[,server][,nowait][,telnet] (unix)\n"
                   1100:     "-chardev udp,id=id[,host=host],port=port[,localaddr=localaddr]\n"
                   1101:     "         [,localport=localport][,ipv4][,ipv6]\n"
                   1102:     "-chardev msmouse,id=id\n"
                   1103:     "-chardev vc,id=id[[,width=width][,height=height]][[,cols=cols][,rows=rows]]\n"
                   1104:     "-chardev file,id=id,path=path\n"
                   1105:     "-chardev pipe,id=id,path=path\n"
                   1106: #ifdef _WIN32
                   1107:     "-chardev console,id=id\n"
                   1108:     "-chardev serial,id=id,path=path\n"
                   1109: #else
                   1110:     "-chardev pty,id=id\n"
                   1111:     "-chardev stdio,id=id\n"
                   1112: #endif
                   1113: #ifdef CONFIG_BRLAPI
                   1114:     "-chardev braille,id=id\n"
                   1115: #endif
                   1116: #if defined(__linux__) || defined(__sun__) || defined(__FreeBSD__) \
                   1117:         || defined(__NetBSD__) || defined(__OpenBSD__) || defined(__DragonFly__)
                   1118:     "-chardev tty,id=id,path=path\n"
                   1119: #endif
                   1120: #if defined(__linux__) || defined(__FreeBSD__) || defined(__DragonFly__)
                   1121:     "-chardev parport,id=id,path=path\n"
                   1122: #endif
                   1123: )
                   1124: 
                   1125: STEXI
                   1126: 
                   1127: The general form of a character device option is:
                   1128: @table @option
                   1129: 
                   1130: @item -chardev @var{backend} ,id=@var{id} [,@var{options}]
                   1131: 
                   1132: Backend is one of:
                   1133: @option{null},
                   1134: @option{socket},
                   1135: @option{udp},
                   1136: @option{msmouse},
                   1137: @option{vc},
                   1138: @option{file},
                   1139: @option{pipe},
                   1140: @option{console},
                   1141: @option{serial},
                   1142: @option{pty},
                   1143: @option{stdio},
                   1144: @option{braille},
                   1145: @option{tty},
                   1146: @option{parport}.
                   1147: The specific backend will determine the applicable options.
                   1148: 
                   1149: All devices must have an id, which can be any string up to 127 characters long.
                   1150: It is used to uniquely identify this device in other command line directives.
                   1151: 
                   1152: Options to each backend are described below.
                   1153: 
                   1154: @item -chardev null ,id=@var{id}
                   1155: A void device. This device will not emit any data, and will drop any data it
                   1156: receives. The null backend does not take any options.
                   1157: 
                   1158: @item -chardev socket ,id=@var{id} [@var{TCP options} or @var{unix options}] [,server] [,nowait] [,telnet]
                   1159: 
                   1160: Create a two-way stream socket, which can be either a TCP or a unix socket. A
                   1161: unix socket will be created if @option{path} is specified. Behaviour is
                   1162: undefined if TCP options are specified for a unix socket.
                   1163: 
                   1164: @option{server} specifies that the socket shall be a listening socket.
                   1165: 
                   1166: @option{nowait} specifies that QEMU should not block waiting for a client to
                   1167: connect to a listening socket.
                   1168: 
                   1169: @option{telnet} specifies that traffic on the socket should interpret telnet
                   1170: escape sequences.
                   1171: 
                   1172: TCP and unix socket options are given below:
                   1173: 
                   1174: @table @option
                   1175: 
                   1176: @item TCP options: port=@var{host} [,host=@var{host}] [,to=@var{to}] [,ipv4] [,ipv6] [,nodelay]
                   1177: 
                   1178: @option{host} for a listening socket specifies the local address to be bound.
                   1179: For a connecting socket species the remote host to connect to. @option{host} is
                   1180: optional for listening sockets. If not specified it defaults to @code{0.0.0.0}.
                   1181: 
                   1182: @option{port} for a listening socket specifies the local port to be bound. For a
                   1183: connecting socket specifies the port on the remote host to connect to.
                   1184: @option{port} can be given as either a port number or a service name.
                   1185: @option{port} is required.
                   1186: 
                   1187: @option{to} is only relevant to listening sockets. If it is specified, and
                   1188: @option{port} cannot be bound, QEMU will attempt to bind to subsequent ports up
                   1189: to and including @option{to} until it succeeds. @option{to} must be specified
                   1190: as a port number.
                   1191: 
                   1192: @option{ipv4} and @option{ipv6} specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.
                   1193: If neither is specified the socket may use either protocol.
                   1194: 
                   1195: @option{nodelay} disables the Nagle algorithm.
                   1196: 
                   1197: @item unix options: path=@var{path}
                   1198: 
                   1199: @option{path} specifies the local path of the unix socket. @option{path} is
                   1200: required.
                   1201: 
                   1202: @end table
                   1203: 
                   1204: @item -chardev udp ,id=@var{id} [,host=@var{host}] ,port=@var{port} [,localaddr=@var{localaddr}] [,localport=@var{localport}] [,ipv4] [,ipv6]
                   1205: 
                   1206: Sends all traffic from the guest to a remote host over UDP.
                   1207: 
                   1208: @option{host} specifies the remote host to connect to. If not specified it
                   1209: defaults to @code{localhost}.
                   1210: 
                   1211: @option{port} specifies the port on the remote host to connect to. @option{port}
                   1212: is required.
                   1213: 
                   1214: @option{localaddr} specifies the local address to bind to. If not specified it
                   1215: defaults to @code{0.0.0.0}.
                   1216: 
                   1217: @option{localport} specifies the local port to bind to. If not specified any
                   1218: available local port will be used.
                   1219: 
                   1220: @option{ipv4} and @option{ipv6} specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.
                   1221: If neither is specified the device may use either protocol.
                   1222: 
                   1223: @item -chardev msmouse ,id=@var{id}
                   1224: 
                   1225: Forward QEMU's emulated msmouse events to the guest. @option{msmouse} does not
                   1226: take any options.
                   1227: 
                   1228: @item -chardev vc ,id=@var{id} [[,width=@var{width}] [,height=@var{height}]] [[,cols=@var{cols}] [,rows=@var{rows}]]
                   1229: 
                   1230: Connect to a QEMU text console. @option{vc} may optionally be given a specific
                   1231: size.
                   1232: 
                   1233: @option{width} and @option{height} specify the width and height respectively of
                   1234: the console, in pixels.
                   1235: 
                   1236: @option{cols} and @option{rows} specify that the console be sized to fit a text
                   1237: console with the given dimensions.
                   1238: 
                   1239: @item -chardev file ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
                   1240: 
                   1241: Log all traffic received from the guest to a file.
                   1242: 
                   1243: @option{path} specifies the path of the file to be opened. This file will be
                   1244: created if it does not already exist, and overwritten if it does. @option{path}
                   1245: is required.
                   1246: 
                   1247: @item -chardev pipe ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
                   1248: 
                   1249: Create a two-way connection to the guest. The behaviour differs slightly between
                   1250: Windows hosts and other hosts:
                   1251: 
                   1252: On Windows, a single duplex pipe will be created at
                   1253: @file{\\.pipe\@option{path}}.
                   1254: 
                   1255: On other hosts, 2 pipes will be created called @file{@option{path}.in} and
                   1256: @file{@option{path}.out}. Data written to @file{@option{path}.in} will be
                   1257: received by the guest. Data written by the guest can be read from
                   1258: @file{@option{path}.out}. QEMU will not create these fifos, and requires them to
                   1259: be present.
                   1260: 
                   1261: @option{path} forms part of the pipe path as described above. @option{path} is
                   1262: required.
                   1263: 
                   1264: @item -chardev console ,id=@var{id}
                   1265: 
                   1266: Send traffic from the guest to QEMU's standard output. @option{console} does not
                   1267: take any options.
                   1268: 
                   1269: @option{console} is only available on Windows hosts.
                   1270: 
                   1271: @item -chardev serial ,id=@var{id} ,path=@option{path}
                   1272: 
                   1273: Send traffic from the guest to a serial device on the host.
                   1274: 
                   1275: @option{serial} is
                   1276: only available on Windows hosts.
                   1277: 
                   1278: @option{path} specifies the name of the serial device to open.
                   1279: 
                   1280: @item -chardev pty ,id=@var{id}
                   1281: 
                   1282: Create a new pseudo-terminal on the host and connect to it. @option{pty} does
                   1283: not take any options.
                   1284: 
                   1285: @option{pty} is not available on Windows hosts.
                   1286: 
                   1287: @item -chardev stdio ,id=@var{id}
                   1288: Connect to standard input and standard output of the qemu process.
                   1289: @option{stdio} does not take any options. @option{stdio} is not available on
                   1290: Windows hosts.
                   1291: 
                   1292: @item -chardev braille ,id=@var{id}
                   1293: 
                   1294: Connect to a local BrlAPI server. @option{braille} does not take any options.
                   1295: 
                   1296: @item -chardev tty ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
                   1297: 
                   1298: Connect to a local tty device.
                   1299: 
                   1300: @option{tty} is only available on Linux, Sun, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and
                   1301: DragonFlyBSD hosts.
                   1302: 
                   1303: @option{path} specifies the path to the tty. @option{path} is required.
                   1304: 
                   1305: @item -chardev parport ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
                   1306: 
                   1307: @option{parport} is only available on Linux, FreeBSD and DragonFlyBSD hosts.
                   1308: 
                   1309: Connect to a local parallel port.
                   1310: 
                   1311: @option{path} specifies the path to the parallel port device. @option{path} is
                   1312: required.
                   1313: 
                   1314: @end table
                   1315: ETEXI
                   1316: 
                   1317: DEFHEADING()
                   1318: 
                   1319: DEFHEADING(Bluetooth(R) options:)
                   1320: 
1.1       root     1321: DEF("bt", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_bt, \
                   1322:     "-bt hci,null    dumb bluetooth HCI - doesn't respond to commands\n" \
                   1323:     "-bt hci,host[:id]\n" \
                   1324:     "                use host's HCI with the given name\n" \
                   1325:     "-bt hci[,vlan=n]\n" \
                   1326:     "                emulate a standard HCI in virtual scatternet 'n'\n" \
                   1327:     "-bt vhci[,vlan=n]\n" \
                   1328:     "                add host computer to virtual scatternet 'n' using VHCI\n" \
                   1329:     "-bt device:dev[,vlan=n]\n" \
                   1330:     "                emulate a bluetooth device 'dev' in scatternet 'n'\n")
                   1331: STEXI
                   1332: @table @option
                   1333: 
                   1334: @item -bt hci[...]
                   1335: Defines the function of the corresponding Bluetooth HCI.  -bt options
                   1336: are matched with the HCIs present in the chosen machine type.  For
                   1337: example when emulating a machine with only one HCI built into it, only
                   1338: the first @code{-bt hci[...]} option is valid and defines the HCI's
                   1339: logic.  The Transport Layer is decided by the machine type.  Currently
                   1340: the machines @code{n800} and @code{n810} have one HCI and all other
                   1341: machines have none.
                   1342: 
                   1343: @anchor{bt-hcis}
                   1344: The following three types are recognized:
                   1345: 
1.1.1.2   root     1346: @table @option
1.1       root     1347: @item -bt hci,null
                   1348: (default) The corresponding Bluetooth HCI assumes no internal logic
                   1349: and will not respond to any HCI commands or emit events.
                   1350: 
                   1351: @item -bt hci,host[:@var{id}]
                   1352: (@code{bluez} only) The corresponding HCI passes commands / events
                   1353: to / from the physical HCI identified by the name @var{id} (default:
                   1354: @code{hci0}) on the computer running QEMU.  Only available on @code{bluez}
                   1355: capable systems like Linux.
                   1356: 
                   1357: @item -bt hci[,vlan=@var{n}]
                   1358: Add a virtual, standard HCI that will participate in the Bluetooth
                   1359: scatternet @var{n} (default @code{0}).  Similarly to @option{-net}
                   1360: VLANs, devices inside a bluetooth network @var{n} can only communicate
                   1361: with other devices in the same network (scatternet).
                   1362: @end table
                   1363: 
                   1364: @item -bt vhci[,vlan=@var{n}]
                   1365: (Linux-host only) Create a HCI in scatternet @var{n} (default 0) attached
                   1366: to the host bluetooth stack instead of to the emulated target.  This
                   1367: allows the host and target machines to participate in a common scatternet
                   1368: and communicate.  Requires the Linux @code{vhci} driver installed.  Can
                   1369: be used as following:
                   1370: 
                   1371: @example
                   1372: qemu [...OPTIONS...] -bt hci,vlan=5 -bt vhci,vlan=5
                   1373: @end example
                   1374: 
                   1375: @item -bt device:@var{dev}[,vlan=@var{n}]
                   1376: Emulate a bluetooth device @var{dev} and place it in network @var{n}
                   1377: (default @code{0}).  QEMU can only emulate one type of bluetooth devices
                   1378: currently:
                   1379: 
1.1.1.2   root     1380: @table @option
1.1       root     1381: @item keyboard
                   1382: Virtual wireless keyboard implementing the HIDP bluetooth profile.
                   1383: @end table
                   1384: @end table
                   1385: ETEXI
                   1386: 
                   1387: DEFHEADING()
                   1388: 
                   1389: DEFHEADING(Linux/Multiboot boot specific:)
                   1390: STEXI
                   1391: 
                   1392: When using these options, you can use a given Linux or Multiboot
                   1393: kernel without installing it in the disk image. It can be useful
                   1394: for easier testing of various kernels.
                   1395: 
                   1396: @table @option
                   1397: ETEXI
                   1398: 
                   1399: DEF("kernel", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_kernel, \
                   1400:     "-kernel bzImage use 'bzImage' as kernel image\n")
                   1401: STEXI
                   1402: @item -kernel @var{bzImage}
                   1403: Use @var{bzImage} as kernel image. The kernel can be either a Linux kernel
                   1404: or in multiboot format.
                   1405: ETEXI
                   1406: 
                   1407: DEF("append", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_append, \
                   1408:     "-append cmdline use 'cmdline' as kernel command line\n")
                   1409: STEXI
                   1410: @item -append @var{cmdline}
                   1411: Use @var{cmdline} as kernel command line
                   1412: ETEXI
                   1413: 
                   1414: DEF("initrd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_initrd, \
                   1415:            "-initrd file    use 'file' as initial ram disk\n")
                   1416: STEXI
                   1417: @item -initrd @var{file}
                   1418: Use @var{file} as initial ram disk.
                   1419: 
                   1420: @item -initrd "@var{file1} arg=foo,@var{file2}"
                   1421: 
                   1422: This syntax is only available with multiboot.
                   1423: 
                   1424: Use @var{file1} and @var{file2} as modules and pass arg=foo as parameter to the
                   1425: first module.
                   1426: ETEXI
                   1427: 
                   1428: STEXI
                   1429: @end table
                   1430: ETEXI
                   1431: 
                   1432: DEFHEADING()
                   1433: 
                   1434: DEFHEADING(Debug/Expert options:)
                   1435: 
                   1436: STEXI
                   1437: @table @option
                   1438: ETEXI
                   1439: 
                   1440: DEF("serial", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_serial, \
                   1441:     "-serial dev     redirect the serial port to char device 'dev'\n")
                   1442: STEXI
                   1443: @item -serial @var{dev}
                   1444: Redirect the virtual serial port to host character device
                   1445: @var{dev}. The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and
                   1446: @code{stdio} in non graphical mode.
                   1447: 
                   1448: This option can be used several times to simulate up to 4 serial
                   1449: ports.
                   1450: 
                   1451: Use @code{-serial none} to disable all serial ports.
                   1452: 
                   1453: Available character devices are:
1.1.1.2   root     1454: @table @option
                   1455: @item vc[:@var{W}x@var{H}]
1.1       root     1456: Virtual console. Optionally, a width and height can be given in pixel with
                   1457: @example
                   1458: vc:800x600
                   1459: @end example
                   1460: It is also possible to specify width or height in characters:
                   1461: @example
                   1462: vc:80Cx24C
                   1463: @end example
                   1464: @item pty
                   1465: [Linux only] Pseudo TTY (a new PTY is automatically allocated)
                   1466: @item none
                   1467: No device is allocated.
                   1468: @item null
                   1469: void device
                   1470: @item /dev/XXX
                   1471: [Linux only] Use host tty, e.g. @file{/dev/ttyS0}. The host serial port
                   1472: parameters are set according to the emulated ones.
                   1473: @item /dev/parport@var{N}
                   1474: [Linux only, parallel port only] Use host parallel port
                   1475: @var{N}. Currently SPP and EPP parallel port features can be used.
                   1476: @item file:@var{filename}
                   1477: Write output to @var{filename}. No character can be read.
                   1478: @item stdio
                   1479: [Unix only] standard input/output
                   1480: @item pipe:@var{filename}
                   1481: name pipe @var{filename}
                   1482: @item COM@var{n}
                   1483: [Windows only] Use host serial port @var{n}
                   1484: @item udp:[@var{remote_host}]:@var{remote_port}[@@[@var{src_ip}]:@var{src_port}]
                   1485: This implements UDP Net Console.
                   1486: When @var{remote_host} or @var{src_ip} are not specified
                   1487: they default to @code{0.0.0.0}.
                   1488: When not using a specified @var{src_port} a random port is automatically chosen.
                   1489: 
                   1490: If you just want a simple readonly console you can use @code{netcat} or
                   1491: @code{nc}, by starting qemu with: @code{-serial udp::4555} and nc as:
                   1492: @code{nc -u -l -p 4555}. Any time qemu writes something to that port it
                   1493: will appear in the netconsole session.
                   1494: 
                   1495: If you plan to send characters back via netconsole or you want to stop
                   1496: and start qemu a lot of times, you should have qemu use the same
                   1497: source port each time by using something like @code{-serial
                   1498: udp::4555@@:4556} to qemu. Another approach is to use a patched
                   1499: version of netcat which can listen to a TCP port and send and receive
                   1500: characters via udp.  If you have a patched version of netcat which
                   1501: activates telnet remote echo and single char transfer, then you can
                   1502: use the following options to step up a netcat redirector to allow
                   1503: telnet on port 5555 to access the qemu port.
                   1504: @table @code
                   1505: @item Qemu Options:
                   1506: -serial udp::4555@@:4556
                   1507: @item netcat options:
                   1508: -u -P 4555 -L 0.0.0.0:4556 -t -p 5555 -I -T
                   1509: @item telnet options:
                   1510: localhost 5555
                   1511: @end table
                   1512: 
                   1513: @item tcp:[@var{host}]:@var{port}[,@var{server}][,nowait][,nodelay]
                   1514: The TCP Net Console has two modes of operation.  It can send the serial
                   1515: I/O to a location or wait for a connection from a location.  By default
                   1516: the TCP Net Console is sent to @var{host} at the @var{port}.  If you use
                   1517: the @var{server} option QEMU will wait for a client socket application
                   1518: to connect to the port before continuing, unless the @code{nowait}
                   1519: option was specified.  The @code{nodelay} option disables the Nagle buffering
                   1520: algorithm.  If @var{host} is omitted, 0.0.0.0 is assumed. Only
                   1521: one TCP connection at a time is accepted. You can use @code{telnet} to
                   1522: connect to the corresponding character device.
                   1523: @table @code
                   1524: @item Example to send tcp console to 192.168.0.2 port 4444
                   1525: -serial tcp:192.168.0.2:4444
                   1526: @item Example to listen and wait on port 4444 for connection
                   1527: -serial tcp::4444,server
                   1528: @item Example to not wait and listen on ip 192.168.0.100 port 4444
                   1529: -serial tcp:192.168.0.100:4444,server,nowait
                   1530: @end table
                   1531: 
                   1532: @item telnet:@var{host}:@var{port}[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]
                   1533: The telnet protocol is used instead of raw tcp sockets.  The options
                   1534: work the same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp}.  The
                   1535: difference is that the port acts like a telnet server or client using
                   1536: telnet option negotiation.  This will also allow you to send the
                   1537: MAGIC_SYSRQ sequence if you use a telnet that supports sending the break
                   1538: sequence.  Typically in unix telnet you do it with Control-] and then
                   1539: type "send break" followed by pressing the enter key.
                   1540: 
                   1541: @item unix:@var{path}[,server][,nowait]
                   1542: A unix domain socket is used instead of a tcp socket.  The option works the
                   1543: same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp} except the unix domain socket
                   1544: @var{path} is used for connections.
                   1545: 
                   1546: @item mon:@var{dev_string}
                   1547: This is a special option to allow the monitor to be multiplexed onto
                   1548: another serial port.  The monitor is accessed with key sequence of
                   1549: @key{Control-a} and then pressing @key{c}. See monitor access
                   1550: @ref{pcsys_keys} in the -nographic section for more keys.
                   1551: @var{dev_string} should be any one of the serial devices specified
                   1552: above.  An example to multiplex the monitor onto a telnet server
                   1553: listening on port 4444 would be:
                   1554: @table @code
                   1555: @item -serial mon:telnet::4444,server,nowait
                   1556: @end table
                   1557: 
                   1558: @item braille
                   1559: Braille device.  This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real
                   1560: or fake device.
                   1561: 
1.1.1.2   root     1562: @item msmouse
                   1563: Three button serial mouse. Configure the guest to use Microsoft protocol.
1.1       root     1564: @end table
                   1565: ETEXI
                   1566: 
                   1567: DEF("parallel", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_parallel, \
                   1568:     "-parallel dev   redirect the parallel port to char device 'dev'\n")
                   1569: STEXI
                   1570: @item -parallel @var{dev}
                   1571: Redirect the virtual parallel port to host device @var{dev} (same
                   1572: devices as the serial port). On Linux hosts, @file{/dev/parportN} can
                   1573: be used to use hardware devices connected on the corresponding host
                   1574: parallel port.
                   1575: 
                   1576: This option can be used several times to simulate up to 3 parallel
                   1577: ports.
                   1578: 
                   1579: Use @code{-parallel none} to disable all parallel ports.
                   1580: ETEXI
                   1581: 
                   1582: DEF("monitor", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_monitor, \
                   1583:     "-monitor dev    redirect the monitor to char device 'dev'\n")
                   1584: STEXI
                   1585: @item -monitor @var{dev}
                   1586: Redirect the monitor to host device @var{dev} (same devices as the
                   1587: serial port).
                   1588: The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and @code{stdio} in
                   1589: non graphical mode.
                   1590: ETEXI
1.1.1.2   root     1591: DEF("qmp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_qmp, \
                   1592:     "-qmp dev        like -monitor but opens in 'control' mode.\n")
                   1593: 
                   1594: DEF("mon", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_mon, \
                   1595:     "-mon chardev=[name][,mode=readline|control][,default]\n")
                   1596: STEXI
                   1597: @item -mon chardev=[name][,mode=readline|control][,default]
                   1598: Setup monitor on chardev @var{name}.
                   1599: ETEXI
1.1       root     1600: 
                   1601: DEF("pidfile", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_pidfile, \
                   1602:     "-pidfile file   write PID to 'file'\n")
                   1603: STEXI
                   1604: @item -pidfile @var{file}
                   1605: Store the QEMU process PID in @var{file}. It is useful if you launch QEMU
                   1606: from a script.
                   1607: ETEXI
                   1608: 
                   1609: DEF("singlestep", 0, QEMU_OPTION_singlestep, \
                   1610:     "-singlestep   always run in singlestep mode\n")
                   1611: STEXI
                   1612: @item -singlestep
                   1613: Run the emulation in single step mode.
                   1614: ETEXI
                   1615: 
                   1616: DEF("S", 0, QEMU_OPTION_S, \
                   1617:     "-S              freeze CPU at startup (use 'c' to start execution)\n")
                   1618: STEXI
                   1619: @item -S
                   1620: Do not start CPU at startup (you must type 'c' in the monitor).
                   1621: ETEXI
                   1622: 
                   1623: DEF("gdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_gdb, \
                   1624:     "-gdb dev        wait for gdb connection on 'dev'\n")
                   1625: STEXI
                   1626: @item -gdb @var{dev}
                   1627: Wait for gdb connection on device @var{dev} (@pxref{gdb_usage}). Typical
                   1628: connections will likely be TCP-based, but also UDP, pseudo TTY, or even
                   1629: stdio are reasonable use case. The latter is allowing to start qemu from
                   1630: within gdb and establish the connection via a pipe:
                   1631: @example
                   1632: (gdb) target remote | exec qemu -gdb stdio ...
                   1633: @end example
                   1634: ETEXI
                   1635: 
                   1636: DEF("s", 0, QEMU_OPTION_s, \
                   1637:     "-s              shorthand for -gdb tcp::%s\n")
                   1638: STEXI
                   1639: @item -s
                   1640: Shorthand for -gdb tcp::1234, i.e. open a gdbserver on TCP port 1234
                   1641: (@pxref{gdb_usage}).
                   1642: ETEXI
                   1643: 
                   1644: DEF("d", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_d, \
                   1645:     "-d item1,...    output log to %s (use -d ? for a list of log items)\n")
                   1646: STEXI
                   1647: @item -d
                   1648: Output log in /tmp/qemu.log
                   1649: ETEXI
                   1650: 
                   1651: DEF("hdachs", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdachs, \
                   1652:     "-hdachs c,h,s[,t]\n" \
                   1653:     "                force hard disk 0 physical geometry and the optional BIOS\n" \
                   1654:     "                translation (t=none or lba) (usually qemu can guess them)\n")
                   1655: STEXI
                   1656: @item -hdachs @var{c},@var{h},@var{s},[,@var{t}]
                   1657: Force hard disk 0 physical geometry (1 <= @var{c} <= 16383, 1 <=
                   1658: @var{h} <= 16, 1 <= @var{s} <= 63) and optionally force the BIOS
                   1659: translation mode (@var{t}=none, lba or auto). Usually QEMU can guess
                   1660: all those parameters. This option is useful for old MS-DOS disk
                   1661: images.
                   1662: ETEXI
                   1663: 
                   1664: DEF("L", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_L, \
                   1665:     "-L path         set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps\n")
                   1666: STEXI
                   1667: @item -L  @var{path}
                   1668: Set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps.
                   1669: ETEXI
                   1670: 
                   1671: DEF("bios", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_bios, \
                   1672:     "-bios file      set the filename for the BIOS\n")
                   1673: STEXI
                   1674: @item -bios @var{file}
                   1675: Set the filename for the BIOS.
                   1676: ETEXI
                   1677: 
                   1678: #ifdef CONFIG_KVM
                   1679: DEF("enable-kvm", 0, QEMU_OPTION_enable_kvm, \
                   1680:     "-enable-kvm     enable KVM full virtualization support\n")
                   1681: #endif
                   1682: STEXI
                   1683: @item -enable-kvm
                   1684: Enable KVM full virtualization support. This option is only available
                   1685: if KVM support is enabled when compiling.
                   1686: ETEXI
                   1687: 
                   1688: #ifdef CONFIG_XEN
                   1689: DEF("xen-domid", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_xen_domid,
                   1690:     "-xen-domid id   specify xen guest domain id\n")
                   1691: DEF("xen-create", 0, QEMU_OPTION_xen_create,
                   1692:     "-xen-create     create domain using xen hypercalls, bypassing xend\n"
                   1693:     "                warning: should not be used when xend is in use\n")
                   1694: DEF("xen-attach", 0, QEMU_OPTION_xen_attach,
                   1695:     "-xen-attach     attach to existing xen domain\n"
                   1696:     "                xend will use this when starting qemu\n")
                   1697: #endif
                   1698: 
                   1699: DEF("no-reboot", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_reboot, \
                   1700:     "-no-reboot      exit instead of rebooting\n")
                   1701: STEXI
                   1702: @item -no-reboot
                   1703: Exit instead of rebooting.
                   1704: ETEXI
                   1705: 
                   1706: DEF("no-shutdown", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_shutdown, \
                   1707:     "-no-shutdown    stop before shutdown\n")
                   1708: STEXI
                   1709: @item -no-shutdown
                   1710: Don't exit QEMU on guest shutdown, but instead only stop the emulation.
                   1711: This allows for instance switching to monitor to commit changes to the
                   1712: disk image.
                   1713: ETEXI
                   1714: 
                   1715: DEF("loadvm", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_loadvm, \
                   1716:     "-loadvm [tag|id]\n" \
                   1717:     "                start right away with a saved state (loadvm in monitor)\n")
                   1718: STEXI
                   1719: @item -loadvm @var{file}
                   1720: Start right away with a saved state (@code{loadvm} in monitor)
                   1721: ETEXI
                   1722: 
                   1723: #ifndef _WIN32
                   1724: DEF("daemonize", 0, QEMU_OPTION_daemonize, \
                   1725:     "-daemonize      daemonize QEMU after initializing\n")
                   1726: #endif
                   1727: STEXI
                   1728: @item -daemonize
                   1729: Daemonize the QEMU process after initialization.  QEMU will not detach from
                   1730: standard IO until it is ready to receive connections on any of its devices.
                   1731: This option is a useful way for external programs to launch QEMU without having
                   1732: to cope with initialization race conditions.
                   1733: ETEXI
                   1734: 
                   1735: DEF("option-rom", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_option_rom, \
                   1736:     "-option-rom rom load a file, rom, into the option ROM space\n")
                   1737: STEXI
                   1738: @item -option-rom @var{file}
                   1739: Load the contents of @var{file} as an option ROM.
                   1740: This option is useful to load things like EtherBoot.
                   1741: ETEXI
                   1742: 
                   1743: DEF("clock", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_clock, \
                   1744:     "-clock          force the use of the given methods for timer alarm.\n" \
                   1745:     "                To see what timers are available use -clock ?\n")
                   1746: STEXI
                   1747: @item -clock @var{method}
                   1748: Force the use of the given methods for timer alarm. To see what timers
                   1749: are available use -clock ?.
                   1750: ETEXI
                   1751: 
1.1.1.2   root     1752: HXCOMM Options deprecated by -rtc
                   1753: DEF("localtime", 0, QEMU_OPTION_localtime, "")
                   1754: DEF("startdate", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_startdate, "")
                   1755: 
                   1756: #ifdef TARGET_I386
                   1757: DEF("rtc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_rtc, \
                   1758:     "-rtc [base=utc|localtime|date][,clock=host|vm][,driftfix=none|slew]\n" \
                   1759:     "                set the RTC base and clock, enable drift fix for clock ticks\n")
                   1760: #else
                   1761: DEF("rtc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_rtc, \
                   1762:     "-rtc [base=utc|localtime|date][,clock=host|vm]\n" \
                   1763:     "                set the RTC base and clock\n")
                   1764: #endif
1.1       root     1765: 
                   1766: STEXI
                   1767: 
1.1.1.2   root     1768: @item -rtc [base=utc|localtime|@var{date}][,clock=host|vm][,driftfix=none|slew]
                   1769: Specify @option{base} as @code{utc} or @code{localtime} to let the RTC start at the current
                   1770: UTC or local time, respectively. @code{localtime} is required for correct date in
                   1771: MS-DOS or Windows. To start at a specific point in time, provide @var{date} in the
                   1772: format @code{2006-06-17T16:01:21} or @code{2006-06-17}. The default base is UTC.
                   1773: 
                   1774: By default the RTC is driven by the host system time. This allows to use the
                   1775: RTC as accurate reference clock inside the guest, specifically if the host
                   1776: time is smoothly following an accurate external reference clock, e.g. via NTP.
                   1777: If you want to isolate the guest time from the host, even prevent it from
                   1778: progressing during suspension, you can set @option{clock} to @code{vm} instead.
                   1779: 
                   1780: Enable @option{driftfix} (i386 targets only) if you experience time drift problems,
                   1781: specifically with Windows' ACPI HAL. This option will try to figure out how
                   1782: many timer interrupts were not processed by the Windows guest and will
                   1783: re-inject them.
1.1       root     1784: ETEXI
                   1785: 
                   1786: DEF("icount", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_icount, \
                   1787:     "-icount [N|auto]\n" \
                   1788:     "                enable virtual instruction counter with 2^N clock ticks per\n" \
                   1789:     "                instruction\n")
                   1790: STEXI
1.1.1.2   root     1791: @item -icount [@var{N}|auto]
1.1       root     1792: Enable virtual instruction counter.  The virtual cpu will execute one
1.1.1.2   root     1793: instruction every 2^@var{N} ns of virtual time.  If @code{auto} is specified
1.1       root     1794: then the virtual cpu speed will be automatically adjusted to keep virtual
                   1795: time within a few seconds of real time.
                   1796: 
                   1797: Note that while this option can give deterministic behavior, it does not
                   1798: provide cycle accurate emulation.  Modern CPUs contain superscalar out of
                   1799: order cores with complex cache hierarchies.  The number of instructions
                   1800: executed often has little or no correlation with actual performance.
                   1801: ETEXI
                   1802: 
                   1803: DEF("watchdog", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_watchdog, \
                   1804:     "-watchdog i6300esb|ib700\n" \
                   1805:     "                enable virtual hardware watchdog [default=none]\n")
                   1806: STEXI
                   1807: @item -watchdog @var{model}
                   1808: Create a virtual hardware watchdog device.  Once enabled (by a guest
                   1809: action), the watchdog must be periodically polled by an agent inside
                   1810: the guest or else the guest will be restarted.
                   1811: 
                   1812: The @var{model} is the model of hardware watchdog to emulate.  Choices
                   1813: for model are: @code{ib700} (iBASE 700) which is a very simple ISA
                   1814: watchdog with a single timer, or @code{i6300esb} (Intel 6300ESB I/O
                   1815: controller hub) which is a much more featureful PCI-based dual-timer
                   1816: watchdog.  Choose a model for which your guest has drivers.
                   1817: 
                   1818: Use @code{-watchdog ?} to list available hardware models.  Only one
                   1819: watchdog can be enabled for a guest.
                   1820: ETEXI
                   1821: 
                   1822: DEF("watchdog-action", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_watchdog_action, \
                   1823:     "-watchdog-action reset|shutdown|poweroff|pause|debug|none\n" \
                   1824:     "                action when watchdog fires [default=reset]\n")
                   1825: STEXI
                   1826: @item -watchdog-action @var{action}
                   1827: 
                   1828: The @var{action} controls what QEMU will do when the watchdog timer
                   1829: expires.
                   1830: The default is
                   1831: @code{reset} (forcefully reset the guest).
                   1832: Other possible actions are:
                   1833: @code{shutdown} (attempt to gracefully shutdown the guest),
                   1834: @code{poweroff} (forcefully poweroff the guest),
                   1835: @code{pause} (pause the guest),
                   1836: @code{debug} (print a debug message and continue), or
                   1837: @code{none} (do nothing).
                   1838: 
                   1839: Note that the @code{shutdown} action requires that the guest responds
                   1840: to ACPI signals, which it may not be able to do in the sort of
                   1841: situations where the watchdog would have expired, and thus
                   1842: @code{-watchdog-action shutdown} is not recommended for production use.
                   1843: 
                   1844: Examples:
                   1845: 
                   1846: @table @code
                   1847: @item -watchdog i6300esb -watchdog-action pause
                   1848: @item -watchdog ib700
                   1849: @end table
                   1850: ETEXI
                   1851: 
                   1852: DEF("echr", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_echr, \
                   1853:     "-echr chr       set terminal escape character instead of ctrl-a\n")
                   1854: STEXI
                   1855: 
1.1.1.2   root     1856: @item -echr @var{numeric_ascii_value}
1.1       root     1857: Change the escape character used for switching to the monitor when using
                   1858: monitor and serial sharing.  The default is @code{0x01} when using the
                   1859: @code{-nographic} option.  @code{0x01} is equal to pressing
                   1860: @code{Control-a}.  You can select a different character from the ascii
                   1861: control keys where 1 through 26 map to Control-a through Control-z.  For
                   1862: instance you could use the either of the following to change the escape
                   1863: character to Control-t.
                   1864: @table @code
                   1865: @item -echr 0x14
                   1866: @item -echr 20
                   1867: @end table
                   1868: ETEXI
                   1869: 
                   1870: DEF("virtioconsole", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_virtiocon, \
                   1871:     "-virtioconsole c\n" \
                   1872:     "                set virtio console\n")
                   1873: STEXI
                   1874: @item -virtioconsole @var{c}
                   1875: Set virtio console.
                   1876: ETEXI
                   1877: 
                   1878: DEF("show-cursor", 0, QEMU_OPTION_show_cursor, \
                   1879:     "-show-cursor    show cursor\n")
                   1880: STEXI
                   1881: ETEXI
                   1882: 
                   1883: DEF("tb-size", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_tb_size, \
                   1884:     "-tb-size n      set TB size\n")
                   1885: STEXI
                   1886: ETEXI
                   1887: 
                   1888: DEF("incoming", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_incoming, \
                   1889:     "-incoming p     prepare for incoming migration, listen on port p\n")
                   1890: STEXI
                   1891: ETEXI
                   1892: 
1.1.1.2   root     1893: DEF("nodefaults", 0, QEMU_OPTION_nodefaults, \
                   1894:     "-nodefaults     don't create default devices.\n")
                   1895: STEXI
                   1896: ETEXI
                   1897: 
1.1       root     1898: #ifndef _WIN32
                   1899: DEF("chroot", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_chroot, \
                   1900:     "-chroot dir     Chroot to dir just before starting the VM.\n")
                   1901: #endif
                   1902: STEXI
1.1.1.2   root     1903: @item -chroot @var{dir}
1.1       root     1904: Immediately before starting guest execution, chroot to the specified
                   1905: directory.  Especially useful in combination with -runas.
                   1906: ETEXI
                   1907: 
                   1908: #ifndef _WIN32
                   1909: DEF("runas", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_runas, \
                   1910:     "-runas user     Change to user id user just before starting the VM.\n")
                   1911: #endif
                   1912: STEXI
1.1.1.2   root     1913: @item -runas @var{user}
1.1       root     1914: Immediately before starting guest execution, drop root privileges, switching
                   1915: to the specified user.
                   1916: ETEXI
                   1917: 
                   1918: STEXI
                   1919: @end table
                   1920: ETEXI
                   1921: 
                   1922: #if defined(TARGET_SPARC) || defined(TARGET_PPC)
                   1923: DEF("prom-env", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_prom_env,
                   1924:     "-prom-env variable=value\n"
                   1925:     "                set OpenBIOS nvram variables\n")
                   1926: #endif
                   1927: #if defined(TARGET_ARM) || defined(TARGET_M68K)
                   1928: DEF("semihosting", 0, QEMU_OPTION_semihosting,
                   1929:     "-semihosting    semihosting mode\n")
                   1930: #endif
                   1931: #if defined(TARGET_ARM)
                   1932: DEF("old-param", 0, QEMU_OPTION_old_param,
                   1933:     "-old-param      old param mode\n")
                   1934: #endif
1.1.1.2   root     1935: DEF("readconfig", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_readconfig,
                   1936:     "-readconfig <file>\n")
                   1937: DEF("writeconfig", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_writeconfig,
                   1938:     "-writeconfig <file>\n"
1.1.1.3 ! root     1939:     "                read/write config file\n")

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